Ford ES. Trends in the risk for coronary heart disease among adults with diagnosed diabetes in the US: findings from the National Health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2008. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(6):1337–43.
Hoerger TJ, Zhang P, Segel JE, Gregg EW, Narayan KM, Hicks KA. Improvements in risk factor control among persons with diabetes in the United States: evidence and implications for remaining life expectancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;86(3):225–32.
Gregg EW, Li Y, Wang J, Burrows NR, Ali MK, Rolka D, Williams DE, Geiss L. Changes in diabetes-related complications in the United States, 1990–2010. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(16):1514–23.
Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, Saydah S, Cowie C, Garfield S, Geiss L, Barker L. Trends in death rates among US adults with and without diabetes between 1997 and 2006: findings from the National Health Interview Survey. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(6):1252–7.
Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Barker LE, Williamson DF. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence. Popul Health Metr. 2010;8:29.
Canavan RJ, Unwin NC, Kelly WF, Connolly VM. Diabetes- and nondiabetes-related lower extremity amputation incidence before and after the introduction of better organized diabetes foot care: continuous longitudinal monitoring using a standard method. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):459–63.
Edmonds ME, Blundell MP, Morris ME, Thomas EM, Cotton LT, Watkins PJ. Improved survival of the diabetic foot: the role of a specialized foot clinic. QJM. 1986;60(232):763–71.
Krishnan S, Nash F, Baker N, Fowler D, Rayman G. Reduction in diabetic amputations over 11 years in a defined UK population: benefits of multidisciplinary team work and continuous prospective audit. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):99–101.
Alvarsson A, Sandgren B, Wendel C, Alvarsson M, Brismar K. A retrospective analysis of amputation rates in diabetic patients: can lower extremity amputations be further prevented? Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:18.
Margolis DJ, Hofstad O, Feldman HI. Association between renal failure and foot ulcer or lower-extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(7):1331–6.
Li Y, Burrows NR, Gregg EW, Albright A, Geiss LS. Declining rates of hospitalization for nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation in the diabetic population aged 40 years or older: US, 1988–2008. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(2):273–7.
Kennon B, Leese GP, Cochrane L, Colhoun H, Wild S, Stang D, Sattar N, Pearson D, Lindsay RS, Morris AD, et al. Reduced incidence of lower-extremity amputations in people with diabetes in Scotland: a nationwide study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(12):2588–90.
van Houtum WH, Rauwerda JA, Ruwaard D, Schaper NC, Bakker K. Reduction in diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations in The Netherlands: 1991–2000. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1042–6.
Buckley CM, O’Farrell A, Canavan RJ, Lynch AD, De La Harpe DV, Bradley CP, Perry IJ. Trends in the incidence of lower extremity amputations in people with and without diabetes over a five-year period in the Republic of Ireland. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41492.
McCaslin JE, Hafez HM, Stansby G. Lower-limb revascularization and major amputation rates in England. Br J Surg. 2007;94(7):835–9.
Trautner C, Haastert B, Spraul M, Giani G, Berger M. Unchanged incidence of lower-limb amputations in a German City, 1990–1998. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(5):855–9.
Vamos EP, Bottle A, Majeed A, Millett C. Trends in lower extremity amputations in people with and without diabetes in England, 1996–2005. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87(2):275–82.
Davis TM, Bruce DG, Davis WA. Cohort profile: the Fremantle diabetes study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42(2):412–21.
Feldman EL, Stevens MJ, Thomas PK, Brown MB, Canal N, Greene DA. A practical two-step quantitative clinical and electrophysiological assessment for the diagnosis and staging of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1994;17(11):1281–9.
Davis WA, Norman PE, Bruce DG, Davis TM. Predictors, consequences and costs of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation complicating type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study. Diabetologia. 2006;49(11):2634–41.
Global Lower Extremity Amputation Study G. Epidemiology of lower extremity amputation in centres in Europe, North America and East Asia. The global lower extremity amputation study group. Br J Surg. 2000;87(3):328–37.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, Kusek JW, Eggers P, Van Lente F, Greene T, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):604–12.
Holman CD, Bass AJ, Rouse IL, Hobbs MST. Population-based linkage of health records in WA: development of a health services research linked database. Aust NZ J Publ Hth. 1999;23:453–9.
Norman PE, Semmens JB, Laurvick CL, Lawrence-Brown M. Long-term relative survival in elderly patients after carotid endarterectomy: a population-based study. Stroke. 2003;34(7):e95–8.
Davis TME, Hunt K, McAullay D, Chubb SAP, Sillars BA, Bruce DG, Davis WA. Continuing disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(10):2005–11.
Baba M, Davis WA, Norman PE, Davis TM. Temporal changes in the prevalence and associates of foot ulceration in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study. J Diabetes Complicat. 2015;29(3):356–61.
Kurowski JR, Nedkoff L, Schoen DE, Knuiman M, Norman PE, Briffa TG. Temporal trends in initial and recurrent lower extremity amputations in people with and without diabetes in Western Australia from 2000 to 2010. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;108(2):280–7.
Lazzarini PA, O’Rourke SR, Russell AW, Derhy PH, Kamp MC. Reduced incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland, Australia. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130609.
Menz H. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the medicare enhanced primary care program, 2004–2008. J Foot Ankle Res. 2009;2:30. doi:10.1186/1757-1146-2-30
McCabe CJ, Stevenson RC, Dolan AM. Evaluation of a diabetic foot screening and protection programme. Diabet Med. 1998;15(1):80–4.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Socio-economic indexes for areas. http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/seifa (2013). Accessed 29 Sept 2015.
Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. National diabetes strategy 2000–2004. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care; 1999.
National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. National evidence-based guideline. Prevention, Identification and management of foot complications in diabetes. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/diabetes_foot_full_guideline_23062011.pdf (2011). Accessed 29 Sept 2015.
Bergin SM, Alford JB, Allard BP, Gurr JM, Holland EL, Horsley MW, Kamp MC, Lazzarini PA, Nube VL, Sinha AK, et al. A limb lost every 3 hours: can Australia reduce amputations in people with diabetes? Med J Aust. 2012;197(4):197–8.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Diabetes: Australian facts 2008 (AIHW Cat. No. CVD 40; Diabetes Series No. 8). http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=6442468075 (2008). Accessed 29 Sept 2015.
Payne CB. Diabetes-related lower-limb amputations in Australia. Med J Aust. 2000;173(7):352–4.
Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Smith DG. Lower-extremity amputation in diabetes. The independent effects of peripheral vascular disease, sensory neuropathy, and foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(7):1029–35.
Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. The 14-year incidence of lower-extremity amputations in a diabetic population. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(6):951–9.
Reiber GE, Pecoraro RE, Koepsell TD. Risk factors for amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus. A case-control study. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(2):97–105.
Hamalainen H, Ronnemaa T, Halonen JP, Toikka T. Factors predicting lower extremity amputations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based 7-year follow-up study. J Intern Med. 1999;246(1):97–103.
Jorgensen M, Almdal T, Faerch K. Reduced incidence of lower extremity amputations in a Danish diabetes population from 2000 to 2011. Diabet Med. 2014;31:443–7.
Ep Vamos, Bottle A, Me Edmonds, Valabhji J, Majeed A, Millett C. changes in the incidence of lower extremity amputations in individuals with and without diabetes in England between 2004 and 2008. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):2592–7.
Goodney PP, Beck AW, Nagle J, Welch HG, Zwolak RM. National trends in lower extremity bypass surgery, endovascular interventions, and major amputations. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50(1):54–60.
Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. The prevalence and incidence of lower extremity amputation in a diabetic population. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152(3):610–6.
Shojaiefard A, Khorgami Z, Larijani B. Independent risk factors for amputation in diabetic foot. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008;28(2):32–7.
Eggers PW, Gohdes D, Pugh J. Nontraumatic lower extremity amputations in the medicare end-stage renal disease population. Kidney Intl. 1999;56(4):1524–33.
Norman PE, Davis WA, Bruce DG, Davis TM. Peripheral arterial disease and risk of cardiac death in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):575–80.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Harkless LB. Validation of a diabetic wound classification system. The contribution of depth, infection, and ischemia to risk of amputation. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(5):855–9.
Oyibo SO, Jude EB, Tarawneh I, Nguyen HC, Armstrong DG, Harkless LB, Boulton AJ. The effects of ulcer size and site, patient’s age, sex and type and duration of diabetes on the outcome of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2001;18(2):133–8.
Tice AD, Hoaglund PA, Shoultz DA. Risk factors and treatment outcomes in osteomyelitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51(5):1261–8.
Liabeuf S, Bourron O, Vemeer C, Theuwissen E, Magdeleyns E, Aubert CE, Brazier M, Mentaverri R, Hartemann A, Massy ZA. Vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes: the involvement of matrix Gla protein. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13:85.
Krueger T, Westenfeld R, Ketteler M, Schurgers LJ, Floege J. Vitamin K deficiency in CKD patients: a modifiable risk factor for vascular calcification? Kidney Intl. 2009;76(1):18–22.
Malmstedt J, Karvestedt L, Swedenborg J, Brismar K. The receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of peripheral arterial disease, amputation or death in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:93.
Walters DP, Gatling W, Mullee MA, Hill RD. The distribution and severity of diabetic foot disease: a community study with comparison to a non-diabetic group. Diabet Med. 1992;9(4):354–8.
Abbott CA, Carrington AL, Ashe H, Bath S, Every LC, Griffiths J, Hann AW, Hussein A, Jackson N, Johnson KE, et al. The North-West diabetes foot care study: incidence of, and risk factors for, new diabetic foot ulceration in a community-based patient cohort. Diabet Med. 2002;19(5):377–84.
Crawford F, Inkster M, Kleijnen J, Fahey T. Predicting foot ulcers in patients with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. QJM. 2007;100(2):65–86.
Monteiro-Soares M, Boyko EJ, Ribeiro J, Ribeiro I, Dinis-Ribeiro M. Predictive factors for diabetic foot ulceration: a systematic review. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28(7):574–600.