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Table 3 Characteristics of pooled Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase 1 (FDS1) and 2 (FDS2) participants with or without a diabetes-related lower extremity amputation at baseline. Data are proportions, mean ± SD, geometric mean (SD range), median [IQR] or mean difference (95 % CI)

From: Temporal changes in the prevalence and associates of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study

  No amputation Amputation P-value
Number 2775 30  
Age (years) 64.8 ± 11.5 66.4 ± 10.5 0.45
Sex (% male) 50.2 66.7 0.097
Ethnic background (%)    0.020
 Anglo-Celt 56.8 46.7  
 Southern European 15.1 16.7  
 Other European 7.9 10.0  
 Asian 3.9 0.0  
 Mixed/other 12.0 6.7  
 Aboriginal 4.3 20.0  
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years) 56.7 ± 12.0 50.5 ± 16.1 0.005
Duration of diabetes (years) 5.0 (1.75–13.0) 12.0 (9.0–28.0) <0.001
Education beyond primary level (%) 80.8 78.6 0.81
Paid employment (%) 24.9 7.1 0.027
Married/de facto relationship (%) 64.2 50.0 0.13
Alcohol use (standard drinks/day) 0.11 (0.0–0.75) 0.0 (0.0–1.13) 0.65
Smoking status (%)    0.093
 Never 45.2 26.7  
 Ex 41.9 63.3  
 Current 12.7 10.0  
BMI (kg/m2) 30.5 ± 5.9 28.8 ± 5.3 0.14
Obese by waist circumference (%)a 67.9 69.6 1.0
Overweight/obese by waist:hip ratio (%)b 78.7 81.8 1.0
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/L) 7.5 (6.2–9.6) 7.6 (6.0–10.9) 0.83
HbA1c (%) 7.0 (6.2–8.1) 7.1 (6.5–8.6) 0.40
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 53 (44–65) 54 (48–70)  
Diabetes treatment (%)    <0.001
 Diet 28.2 10.0  
 Oral agents 54.8 33.3  
 Insulin ± oral agents 17.0 56.7  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 148 ± 23 154 ± 33 0.33
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 12 79 ± 13 0.61
On antihypertensive therapy (%) 68 ± 19 75 ± 25 0.047
On renin-angiotensin blockers (%) 16.9 23.3 0.33
Total serum cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 1.2 4.4 ± 1.2 0.034
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.16 ± 0.34 1.11 ± 0.32 0.46
Serum triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.8 (1.0–3.2) 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 0.74
Urinary albumin:creatinine ratio 4.0 (1.1–14.7) 23.3 (4.5–121.6) <0.001
On lipid modifying treatment (%) 41.1 46.7 0.58
Taking aspirin (%) 29.7 40.0 0.23
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%) 19.8 46.7 0.001
Any retinopathy (%) 19.2 53.8 <0.001
Peripheral sensory neuropathy (%) 45.5 82.6 <0.001
History of ischaemic heart disease (%) 28.4 46.7 0.040
History of cerebrovascular disease (%) 8.9 36.7 <0.001
Peripheral arterial disease (%) 24.9 100.0 <0.001
Self-reported intermittent claudication (%) 11.2 33.3 0.001
Arterial bypass/revascularisation (%) 1.7 56.7 <0.001
Past hospitalisation for/current foot ulcer (%) 1.7 53.3 <0.001
  1. aWaist circumference ≥ 102.0 cm males, ≥ 88.0 cm females
  2. bWaist:hip ratio ≥ 0.95 males, ≥ 0.80 females