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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase 1 (FDS1) and 2 (FDS2) participants with type 2 diabetes

From: Temporal changes in the prevalence and associates of diabetes-related lower extremity amputations in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study

  FDS1 FDS2 Difference (95 % CI) P-value*
Number 1296 1509   
Age (years) 64.0 ± 11.3 65.4 ± 11.7 1.4 (0.6–2.3) <0.001
Sex (% male) 48.6 51.8 3.2 (−0.5 to 6.9) 0.032
Ethnic background (%)
 Anglo-Celt 61.4 52.6 −8.9 (−12.5 to −5.2) <0.001
 Southern European 17.7 12.9 −4.9 (−7.6 to −2.2) <0.001
 Other European 8.5 7.4 −1.1 (−0.9 to 3.1) 0.20
 Asian 3.4 4.3 0.9 (−0.5 to 2.3) 0.14
 Aboriginal 1.5 7.1 5.6 (4.2–7.1) <0.00
 Other 7.5 15.8 8.4 (6.0–10.7) <0.001
Age at diabetes diagnosis (years) 57.9 ± 11.7 55.6 ± 12.4 −2.3 (−3.2 to 1.4) <0.001
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.0 (1.0–9.0) 8.0 (2.7–15.4) 3.7 (3.2–4.3) <0.001
Education beyond primary level (%) 74.0 86.8 12.8 (9.8–15.7) <0.001
Paid employment (%) 17.5 31.0 13.6 (10.4–16.7) <0.001
Married/de facto relationship (%) 65.7 62.7 −3.0 (−6.5 to 0.6) 0.79
Alcohol use (standard drinks/day) 0 (0–0.8) 0.1 (0–1.2) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.003
Smoking status (%)
 Never 44.7 45.4 0.7 (−3.0 to 4.4) 0.054
 Ex- 40.2 43.9 3.6 (−0.03 to 7.3) 0.29
 Current 15.1 10.7 −4.5 (−7.0 to −2.0) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 29.6 ± 5.4 31.3 ± 6.1 1.7 (1.3–2.1) <0.001
Obese by waist circumference (%)a 64.5 70.9 6.4 (2.9–9.9) <0.001
Overweight/obese by waist:hip ratio (%)b 74.2 82.7 8.5 (5.4–11.6) <0.001
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/L) 8.0 (6.5–10.3) 7.2 (6.2–8.9) −0.8 (−1.0 to −0.6) <0.001
HbA1c (%) 7.2 (6.2–8.5) 6.8 (6.2–7.7) −0.3 (−0.4 to −0.2) <0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 55 (44–69) 51 (44–61) −3.5 (−4.8 to −2.1) <0.001
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Diet 31.9 24.6 −7.3 (−10.7 to −4.0) <0.001
 Oral agents 56.0 53.4 −2.6 (−6.3 to 1.1) 0.075
 Insulin ± oral agents 12.1 22.0 9.9 (7.2–12.7) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 151 ± 24 146 ± 22 −5.1 (−6.8 to −3.4) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 11 80 ± 12 −0.3 (−1.1 to 0.6) 0.66
On antihypertensive therapy (%) 50.9 72.6 21.7 (18.2–25.2) <0.001
On renin-angiotensin blockers (%) 21.8 64.3 42.4 (39.1–45.8) <0.001
Total serum cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.5 ± 1.1 4.4 ± 1.1 −1.1 (−1.2 to −1.0) <0.001
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.06 ± 0.3 1.24 ± 0.3 0.18 (0.15–0.20) <0.001
Serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.3 ± 0.91 2.3 ± 0.9 −1.0 (−1.1 to −0.9) <0.001
Serum triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.2 (1.2–3.9) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) −0.9 (−1.0 to −0.7) <0.001
On lipid modifying treatment (%) 10.5 67.5 56.9 (54.0–59.8) <0.001
Taking aspirin (%) 22.0 36.6 14.6 (11.3–17.9) <0.001
Microalbuminuria or worse (%) 56.4 40.0 −16.4 (−20.0 to −12.7) <0.001
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%) 24.2 16.5 –7.8 (−10.8 to −4.8) <0.001
Any retinopathy (%) 16.4 22.4 6.0 (3.0–9.1) 0.001
Peripheral sensory neuropathy (%) 30.8 58.2 27.4 (23.9–31.0) <0.001
Ischaemic heart disease (%) 29.6 27.8 −1.8 (−5.1 to 1.6) 0.32
Cerebrovascular disease (%) 10.0 8.5 −1.4 (−3.6 to 0.8) 0.21
Peripheral arterial disease (%) 29.3 22.6 −6.7 (−10.0 to −3.5) <0.001
Intermittent claudication (%) 14.0 9.2 −4.8 (−7.2 to −2.4) <0.001
Arterial bypass/revascularisation (%) 1.3 3.0 1.7 (0.7–2.8) 0.013
Past hospitalisation for/current foot ulcer 1.6 2.8 1.2 (0.1–2.3) 0.17
Diabetes-related LEA (%) 1.2 1.0 −0.2 (−0.9 to 0.6) 0.22
Diabetes-related major LEA (%) 0.6 0.3 −0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2) 0.07
Diabetes-related minor LEA (%) 0.5 0.7 0.1 (−0.5 to 0.7) 0.90
  1. Data are proportions, mean ± SD, geometric mean (SD range), median (IQR) or mean difference (95 % CI)
  2. aWaist circumference ≥102.0 cm males, ≥88.0 cm females
  3. bWaist:hip ratio ≥0.95 males, ≥0.80 females
  4. * Age-, sex- and ethnicity-adjusted for interaction between Phases