de Ferranti SD, de Boer IH, Fonseca V, et al. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American heart association and American diabetes association. Circulation. 2014;130:1110–30.
Lind M, Svensson AM, Kosiborod M, et al. Glycemic control and excess mortality in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1972–82.
Livingstone SJ, Looker HC, Hothersall EJ, et al. Risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes: Scottish registry linkage study. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001321.
Brownlee M. The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. Diabetes. 2005;54:1615–25.
Cheung N, Mitchell P, Wong TY. Diabetic retinopathy. Lancet. 2010;376:124–36.
Li LJ, Lamoureux E, Wong TY, Lek N. Short-term poor glycemic control and retinal microvascular changes in pediatric type 1 diabetes patients in Singapore: a pilot study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:60.
Kramer CK, Rodrigues TC, Canani LH, Gross JL, Azevedo MJ. Diabetic retinopathy predicts all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in both type 1 and 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of observational studies. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1238–44.
Arcidiacono MV, Traveset A, Rubinat E, et al. Microangiopathy of large artery wall: a neglected complication of diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2013;228:142–7.
Gerstein HC, Ambrosius WT, Danis R, et al. Diabetic retinopathy, its progression, and incident cardiovascular events in the ACCORD trial. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:1266–71.
Almeida FK, Esteves JF, Gross JL, Biavatti K, Rodrigues TC. Severe forms of retinopathy predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes subjects. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011;97(4):346–9.
Araszkiewicz A, Rogowicz-Frontczak A, Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz D, Pilacinski S, Wykretowicz A, Wierusz-Wysocka B. Presence of retinopathy in type 1 diabetic patients is associated with subclinical macroangiopathy. Scand J Clin Lab Investig. 2011;71(7):563–8.
de Boer IH, Gao X, Cleary PA, et al. Diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (DCCT/EDIC) research group. Albuminuria changes and cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 1 diabetes: the DCCT/EDIC study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11:1969–77.
Thorn LM, Gordin D, Harjutsalo V, et al. The presence and consequence of nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:2128–33.
Weber LA, Cheezum MK, Reese JM, et al. Cardiovascular imaging for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep. 2015;8:36.
O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Thickening of the carotid wall. A marker for atherosclerosis in the elderly? Cardiovascular health study collaborative research group. Stroke. 1996;27:224–31.
Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, et al. Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987–1993. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146:483–94.
Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, et al. Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (atherosclerosis risk in communities) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:1600–7.
Gepner AD, Young R, Delaney JA, et al. Comparison of coronary artery calcium presence, carotid plaque presence, and carotid intima-media thickness for cardiovascular disease prediction in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;8:e002262.
Sillesen H, Muntendam P, Adourian A, et al. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis: comparison with other tests for subclinical arterial disease in the high risk plaque BioImage study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:681–9.
Touboul PJ, Labreuche J, Vicaut E, Amarenco P, GENIC Investigators. Carotid intima-media thickness, plaques, and Framingham risk score as independent determinants of stroke risk. Stroke. 2005;36:1741–5.
Sundquist K, Li X. Type 1 diabetes as a risk factor for stroke in men and women aged 15–49: a nationwide study from Sweden. Diabet Med. 2006;23:1261–7.
Hägg S, Thorn LM, Putaala J, et al. Incidence of stroke according to presence of diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:4140–6.
Alonso N, Traveset A, Rubinat E, et al. Type 2 diabetes-associated carotid plaque burden is increased in patients with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:33.
de Kreutzenberg SV, Coracina A, Volpi A, et al. Microangiopathy is independently associated with presence, severity and composition of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:286–93.
Wu Y, He J, Sun X, et al. Carotid atherosclerosis and its relationship to coronary heart disease and stroke risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8151.
Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein RE, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1677–82.
Touboul PJ, Hennerici MG, Meairs S, et al. Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness consensus (2004–2006). An update on behalf of the advisory board of the 3rd and 4th watching the risk symposium, 13th and 15th European stroke conferences, Mannheim, Germany, 2004, and Brussels, Belgium, 2006. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;23:75–80.
Sun YP, Cai YY, Li HM, Deng SM, Leng RX, Pan HF. Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): a meta-analysis. J Diabetes Complicat. 2015;29:724–30.
Distiller LA, Joffe BI, Melville V, Welman T, Distiller GB. Carotid artery intima-media complex thickening in patients with relatively long-surviving type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complicat. 2006;20:280–4.
Ogawa Y, Uchigata Y, Iwamoto Y. Progression factors of carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in patients with long-term, early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus in Japan: simultaneous comparison with diabetic retinopathy. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:821–8.
Hernández M, López C, Real J, Valls J, Ortega-Martinez de Victoria E, Vázquez F, Rubinat E, Granado-Casas M, Alonso N, Molí T, Betriu A, Lecube A, Fernández E, Leslie RD, Mauricio D. Preclinical carotid aterosclerosis in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes and classical type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:94.
Bernard S, Sérusclat A, Targe F, et al. Incremental predictive value of carotid ultrasonography in the assessment of coronary risk in a cohort of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1158–62.
Catalan M, Herreras Z, Pinyol M, et al. Prevalence by sex of preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25:742–8.
Sell DR, Sun W, Gao X, Strauch C, Lachin JM, Cleary PA, Genuth S, Vincent M, Monnier VM, The DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Skin collagen fluorophore LW-1 versus skin fluorescence as markers for the long-term progression of subclinical macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:30.
Osawa S, Katakami N, Kuroda A, Takahara M, Sakamoto F, Kawamori D, Matsuoka T, Matsuhisa M, Shimomura I. Skin autofluorescence is associated with early-stage atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017;24:312–26.
Bradley TJ, Slorach C, Mahmud FH, Dunger DB, Deanfield J, Deda L, Elia Y, Har RLH, Hui W, Moineddin R, Reich HN, Scholey JW, Mertens L, Sochett E, Cherney DZI. Early changes in cardiovascular structure and function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:31.
Peeters SA, Engelen L, Buijs J, Chaturvedi N, Fuller JH, Jorsal A, Parving HH, Tarnow L, Theilade S, Rossing P, Schalkwijk CG, Stehouwer CDA. Circulating matrix metalloproteinases are associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 1 diabetes: pooled analysis of three cohort studies. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:139.
Heier M, Borja MS, Brunborg C, Seljeflot I, Margeirsdottir HD, Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Oda MN. Reduced HDL function in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:85.
Li LX, Zhao CC, Ren Y, et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:18.
Xie J, Ikram MK, Cotch MF, et al. Association of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:586–93.
Guy J, Ogden L, Wadwa RP, Hamman RF, Mayer-Davis EJ, Liese AD, D’Agostino R Jr, Marcovina S, Dabelea D. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles in youth with and without type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(3):416–20.
Fernández-Miró M, Chillarón JJ, Albareda M, Fontserè S, Colom C, Vila L, Pedro-Botet J, Flores JLR, TEST-T1D study group. Hypertriglyceridemic waist in type 1 diabetes patients: prevalence and related factors. Minerva Endocrinol. 2017;42(1):1–7.