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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of non-COVID-19 explanted heart cohort

From: Glycated ACE2 receptor in diabetes: open door for SARS-COV-2 entry in cardiomyocyte

  DM patients Non-DM patients P
N 47 93 /
Mean age (years) 52.9±6.7 53.7±4.1 0.19
Sex, male (%) 35 (74) 73 (78) 0.36
BMI (kg/m2) 27.3±1.2 25.7±1.6 0.001
Aetiology of heart failure, n (%)    
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy 25 (53) 50 (54) 0.54
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 20 (42) 37 (40) 0.27
 Other 2 (4) 6 (6) 0.33
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)    
 Hypertension, n (%) 12 (25) 25 (27) 0.52
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 21 (45) 30 (32) 0.10
 Family history of CAD, n (%) 27 (57) 45 (48) 0.20
 Smoking history, n (%) 5 (11) 10 (11) 0.61
Laboratory analyses    
 Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 126.7±18.7 88.7±6.7 0.001
 HbA1c (%) 6.7±1.2 4.8±0.8 0.007
 Cholesterol (mg/dl) 177.1±21.6 161.7±18.7 0.011
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 101.1±22.7 97.4±16.7 0.16
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 40.9±1.1 41.8±1.7 0.21
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 172.4±28.2 113.4±11.1 0.013
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.0±0.37 1.0±0.26 0.74
Therapy    
 ACEi, n (%) 40 (85) 83 (89) 0.33
 ARBs, n (%) 15 (32) 34 (37) 0.36
 Diuretic, n (%) 45 (96) 92 (99) 0.26
 Antiaggregant, n (%) 46 (98) 83 (89) 0.06
 Anticoagulant, n (%) 5 (11) 16 (17) 0.22
 Statin, n (%) 40 (85) 70 (75) 0.12
 Beta-blockers, n (%) 47 (100) 90 (97) 0.55
 Sacubitril-valsartan, n (%) 21 (45) 31 (33) 0.13
 Nitrate, n (%) 21 (45) 37 (40) 0.35
 Calcium-antagonist, n (%) 7 (15) 6 (6) 0.96
  1. Data are means ± SD or n (%).
  2. BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, Non-DM without diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers