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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study participants, 354 males and 335 females

From: Developmental trajectories of body mass index from childhood into late adolescence and subsequent late adolescence–young adulthood cardiometabolic risk markers

  n (males, females) Male Female P value
Baseline (prenatal, birth, and early life) parameters
 Birth weight, ga 354, 335 3590 (610) 3380 (560) < 0.01
 Birth length, cma 354, 335 52 (3) 51 (3) < 0.01
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI, kg/m2a 319, 304 23.2 (4.6) 22.7 (4.4) 0.13
 Maternal gestational weight gain, kga 341, 327 13 (5) 12 (5) 0.81
 First-born childb 290, 274 161 (56) 159 (58) 0.45
 Breastfeeding duration, weeksa 288, 277 26 (29) 28 (31) 0.36
 Maternal education, highb 131, 160 119 (91) 143 (89) 0.36
 Maternal empolyment, employedb 130, 159 27 (21) 59 (37) < 0.01
 Smoking householdb 211, 204 51 (24) 52 (25) 0.36
Dietary intake and lifestyle in late adolescence-young adulthood (18–39 years)
 Daily total energy intake, kcal/daya 225, 217 2417.9 (584.3) 1816 (449) < 0.01
 Alcohol drinkersb 233, 221 164 (70) 160 (72) 0.64
 Smokersb 223, 221 40 (18) 34 (15) 0.47
Cardiometabolic risk markers in late adolescence-young adulthood (18–39 years)
 Serum triglycerides, mg/dLa 185, 184 79 (50) 88 (49) 0.14
 Serum HDL cholesterol, mg/dLa 190, 185 50 (15) 65 (18) < 0.01
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHga 239, 228 118 (16) 110 (15) < 0.01
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHga 239, 228 74 (12) 70 (12) < 0.01
 Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dLa 193, 188 94 (11) 90 (9) < 0.01
 C-reactive protein, mg/dLa 159, 154 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (0.3) < 0.01
 Interleukin-6, pg/mLa 154, 152 0.7 (0.6) 0.7 (0.6) 0.72
 Interleukin-18, pg/mLa 156, 154 255.1 (101.8) 245.6 (96.7) 0.29
 Adiponectin, ng/mLa 157, 153 6030.3 (5198.3) 8711.2 (5539.9) < 0.01
 Chemerin, ng/mLa 159, 154 140.9 (35.6) 166 (41.9) < 0.01
 Leptin, pg/mLa 158, 149 2335.4 (3441.2) 12666.5 (9517.4) < 0.01
  1. a Median (interquartile range) and b n(%), n = count,  % = percentage, BMI body mass index. P-values of the difference between sexes were obtained from Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney test for continuous variables, and Chi square test for categorical variables