Sagittal sections of the thoracic region of the whole embryos of control (A, B, E, F) and diabetic (C, D, G, H) mice showing the immunoreactivities of PGP9.5 and NCAM. Compared with control (A, B), the number of PGP9.5 positive ganglionic cells appear to be reduced around the great vessels on the posterior atrial wall of experimental embryos (C, D: arrow). Inset shows the high magnification of the cardiac ganglionic cell expressing PGP9.5 around the great vessels on the posterior atrial wall (A). The NCAM immunoreactivity appears to be down-regulated in the nerves and ganglia around the atrial epicardium in the diabetic offspring (G, H: arrow) as compared with those of controls (E, F: arrow). In addition, the cardiac ganglionic cells expressing PGP9.5 and NCAM immunoreactivity in the atrial epicardium appear to be reduced in embryos of diabetic mice (H: arrow) when compared with controls (F: arrow). Inset shows high magnification of the cardiac ganglionic cells expressing PGP 9.5 and NCAM immunoreactivities in the atrial epicardium (F, H: arrow). Sketch diagrams show the lateral view of the mouse (I) and the sagittal view of the heart (J) indicates in figure 2A-H. Bar A, C, E, G 200 μm; B, D, F, H 50 μm.