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Table 1 Characteristics of the study cohort, by exposure status

From: Consultation rates in people with type 2 diabetes with and without vascular complications: a retrospective analysis of 141,328 adults in England

Variables T2DM
N (%)
CVD
N (%)
T2DM AND CVD*
N (%)
Total, n 83,094 (58.8%) 57,974 (41.0%) 11,881 (8.4%)
Average duration, mean years 5.49 4.12 4.03
Age, mean [sd] years 61.03 (13.61) 71.15 (14.52) 69.61 (12.20)
Sex (%)    
 Men 43,791 (52.7%) 26,599 (45.9%) 6,933 (58.4%)
 Women 39,303 (47.2%) 31,375 (54.1%) 4,948 (41.6%)
Ethnicity (%)    
 White 73,182 (88.1%) 54,337 (93.7%) 11,056 (93.1%)
 South asian 4,720 (5.7%) 763 (1.3%) 417 (3.5%)
 Black 2,048 (2.5%) 484 (0.8%) 141 (1.2%)
 Other 505 (0.6%) 108 (0.2%) 38 (0.3%)
Smoking status (%)    
 Non-smoker 47,659 (57.4%) 32,034 (55.3%) 4,721 (39.7%)
 Ex-smoker 5,024 (6.05%) 4,535 (7.8%) 5,187 (43.7%)
 Current smoker 30,113 (36.2%) 20,359 (35.11%) 1,945 (16.4%)
 Missing 298 (0.4%) 1,046 (1.8%) 28 (0.2%)
Bmi (kg/m2)    
 Bmi mean [sd] 31.79 (6.81) 27.03 (5.59) 30.60 (6.11)
 18.5–24.9 9,507 (11.4%) 12,059 (20.8%) 1,175 (9.9%)
 25.0–29.9 24,318 (26.3%) 12,925 (22.3%) 2,664 (22.4%)
 30.0–34.9 22,535 (27.12%) 6,344 (10.9%) 2,312 (19.5%)
 35.0–39.9 12,048 (14.5%) 2,035 (3.5%) 1,013 (8.5%)
 40.0–44.9 5,293 (6.4%) 580 (1.0%) 343 (2.9%)
Hba1c, mean [sd] (%) 7.85 (2.07) 6.00 (1.19) 7.41 (1.69)
Egfr mean [sd] (ml/min/1.73m2) 79.00 (20.47) 68.18 (20.26) 80.32 (34.01)
Blood pressure    
 Systolic, mean [sd] (mmhg) 139.72 (18.45) 140.68 (22.23) 136.45 (19.83)
 Diastolic, mean [sd] (mmhg) 81.73 (10.83) 79.46 (11.92) 76.82 (11.04)
Uric Acid, mean [sd] (µmol) 345.75 (78.35) 344.61 (81.75) 399.41 (110.00)
Comorbidities (%)    
 Ischaemic heart disease 9,677 (11.6%) 10,988 (19.0%) 5,708 (48.0%)
 Heart failure 2,686 (3.2%) 3,911 (6.9%) 1,415 (11.9%)
 Hypertension 41,811 (50.3%) 29,514 (51.0%) 8,642 (72.7%)
 Microalbuminuria 197 (0.2%) 89 (0.2%) 526 (4.4%)
 Non-traumatic amputation 467 (0.6%) 548 (1.0%) 167 (1.4%)
 Atrial fibrillation 4402 (5.3%) 7,259 (12.7%) 3,701 (31.2%)
 Peripheral arterial disease 837 (1.0%) 2,178 (3.8%) 1,227 (10.3%)
Consultations    
 Total, n 6,155,602 3,154,091 912,105
 Primary care, n 5,108,427 2,482,575 622,770
 Specialist care, n 1,047,175 671,516 289,335
  1. There were 260 patients that were diagnosed with T2DM and CVD at the same time upon index date they were included in the analysis as cardiometabolic multimorbidity patients
  2. *These patients transitioned during the study to cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Measurements for those with T2DM + CVD were obtained 3 months before or after the transition date (change of status) for this group
  3. There were 27,928 (19.8%) missing BMI values and 64,254 (45.5%) missing Hba1c values for those with T2DM only and CVD only. There were 4101 (34.5%) missing BMI values and 3372 (28.4%) missing Hba1c values in those that transitioned during the study period
  4. SD Standard deviation, T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus, CVD coronary heart disease/stroke