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Table 1 Characteristics of patients among the non-MACE and MACE group

From: Atherogenic index of plasma is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Characteristics Total (n = 10,251) Non-MACE(n = 8425) MACE (n = 1826) P
Age, (years) 62.81 (SD: 6.65) 62.52 (SD: 6.51) 64.15 (SD: 7.13)  < 0.001
Sex (%)      < 0.001
 Female 3952 (38.55) 3389 (40.23) 563 (30.83)  
 Male 6299 (61.45) 5036 (59.77) 1263 (61.45)  
Living alone 8171 (79.72) 6735 (79.96) 1436 (78.64) 0.211
Race/ethnicity, n (%)      < 0.001
 White 6393 (62.36) 5128 (60.87) 1265 (69.28)  
 Non-white 3858 (37.64) 3297 (39.13) 561 (30.72)  
Education, n (%)     0.002
 Less than high school 1521 (14.85) 1214 (14.42) 307 (16.84)  
 High school graduate or GED 2704 (26.40) 2223 (26.40) 481 (26.39)  
 Some college 3357 (32.77) 2740 (32.54) 617 (33.85)  
 College degree or higher 2662 (25.99) 2244 (26.65) 418 (22.93)  
Previous cardiovascular event, n (%) 3609 (35.21) 2640 (31.34) 969 (53.07)  < 0.001
Previous congestive heart failure, n (%) 494 (4.82) 327 (3.88) 167 (9.15)  < 0.001
Previous hyperlipidemia, n (%) 7165 (69.90) 5862 (69.58) 1303 (71.36) 0.136
Previous hypertension, n (%) 7726 (75.37) 6301 (74.79) 1425 (78.04) 0.003
Cigarette-smoking status, n (%)      < 0.001
 Current 1429 (13.94) 1146 (13.60) 283 (15.50)  
 Former 4540 (44.29) 3664 (43.49) 876 (47.97)  
 Never 4282 (41.77) 3615 (42.91) 667 (36.53)  
Weight (kg) 93.51 (SD: 18.41) 93.28 (SD: 18.40) 94.58 (SD: 18.40) 0.006
Body mass index (kg/cm2) 32.22 (SD: 5.40) 32.21 (SD: 5.41) 32.28 (SD: 5.37) 0.625
Blood pressure (mmHg)     
 Systolic 136.36 (SD: 17.11) 136.00 (SD: 16.88) 138.02 (SD: 18.04)  < 0.001
 Diastolic 74.88 (SD: 10.66) 75.14 (SD: 10.48) 73.70 (SD: 11.37)  < 0.001
Medications, n (%)     
 Insulin 3260 (31.80) 2559 (30.37) 701 (38.39)  < 0.001
 Metformin 6554 (63.94) 5467 (64.90) 1087 (59.53)  < 0.001
 Any sulfonylurea 5474 (53.40) 4530 (53.77) 944 (51.70) 0.109
 Any thiazolidinedione 2258 (22.03) 1912 (22.70) 346 (18.95)  < 0.001
 ACEI/ARB 7102 (69.28) 5835 (69.26) 1267 (69.39) 0.933
 Aspirin 5579 (54.68) 4538 (54.12) 1041 (57.26) 0.016
 Statin 6500 (63.66) 5314 (63.33) 1186 (65.16) 0.147
 Cholesterol absorption inhibitors 207 (2.03) 169 (2.02) 38 (2.09) 0.854
 Niacin and nicotinic acid 183 (1.79) 142 (1.69) 41 (2.26) 0.118
Duration of diabetes (years) 10.80 (SD: 7.60) 10.50 (SD: 7.42) 12.18 (SD: 8.21)  < 0.001
Glycated hemoglobin (%) 8.30 (SD: 1.06) 8.28 (SD: 1.05) 8.41 (SD: 1.09)  < 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 175.19 (SD: 56.17) 174.04 (SD: 55.31) 180.51 (SD: 59.72)  < 0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.91 (SD: 0.23) 0.90 (SD: 0.23) 0.97 (SD: 0.25)  < 0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)      < 0.001
 30–49 mL/min/1.73 m2 271 (2.64) 192 (2.28) 79 (4.33)  
 > 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 9980 (97.36) 8233 (97.72) 1747 (95.67)  
Plasma triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.13 (SD: 1.68) 2.11 (SD: 1.65) 2.26 (SD: 1.81) 0.001
Total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.71 (SD: 1.13) 4.71 (SD: 1.12) 4.76 (SD: 1.19) 0.059
Plasma LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.70 (SD: 0.90) 2.69 (SD: 0.89) 2.74 (SD: 0.94) 0.024
Plasma HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.08 (SD: 0.31) 1.09 (SD: 0.31) 1.03 (SD: 0.31)  < 0.001
Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) 0.54 (SD: 0.75) 0.51 (SD: 0.75) 0.64 (SD: 0.74)  < 0.001