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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population by sex

From: Effect of diabetes mellitus on the development of left ventricular contractile dysfunction in women with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

  Women (n = 108) Men (n = 116) p-value
Age, yrs 63.3 ± 9.4 59.3 ± 11.3 0.019
BMI, kg/m2 23.1 ± 3.9 24.2 ± 3.3 0.043
Heart rate, beats/min 83.2 ± 14.4 79.2 ± 17.1 0.118
SBP, mmHg 126.4 ± 21.2 121.7 ± 21.9 0.181
DBP, mmHg 76.1 ± 13.5 73.7 ± 14.9 0.297
PP, mmHg 50.3 ± 17.2 48.0 ± 19.3 0.445
HF duration
 ≤ 1 yr 63 (58.3) 63 (54.3) 0.786
 > 1 and ≤ 5 yrs 27 (25.0) 30 (25.9)
 > 5 yrs 18 (16.7) 23 (19.8)
Cardiovascular comorbidities, n (%)
 DM 47 (43.5) 43 (37.1) 0.325
 HT 67 (62.0) 75 (64.7) 0.684
 CAD 19 (17.6) 35 (30.2) 0.028
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 Smoking 4 (3.7) 57 (49.1) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 24 (22.2) 24 (20.7) 0.780
 Dyslipidemia 34 (31.5) 26 (22.4) 0.126
Medications, n (%)
 Beta-blocker 71 (65.7) 75 (64.7) 0.865
 ACEI/ARB 77 (71.3) 86 (74.1) 0.633
 Diuretics 62 (57.4) 76 (65.5) 0.212
 CCB 15 (13.9) 16 (13.8) 0.983
 Anti-thrombotic agents 48 (44.4) 58 (50.0) 0.405
 Statins 29 (26.9) 46 (39.7) 0.042
Laboratory data
 NT-proBNP, pg/mL 1970 (698–3967) 1696 (586–3994) 0.004
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 70.8 ± 26.5 76.9 ± 25.7 0.013
 TG, mmol/L 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 0.042
 TC, mmol/L 4.2 (3.4–5.1) 3.9 (3.2–4.5) 0.033
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.181
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, media (Q1–Q3) or number (percentage)
  2. BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; PP: pulse pressure; HF: heart failure; DM: diabetes mellitus; HT: hypertension; CAD: coronary artery disease; AF: atrial fibrillation; ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; CCB: calcium-channel blocker; NT-proBNP: amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; TG: triglycerides; TC: cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content