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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to diabetic status

From: Proteomic mechanistic profile of patients with diabetes at risk of developing heart failure: insights from the HOMAGE trial

Variable Level Patients without diabetes (n = 310) Patients with diabetes (n = 217) p-value
Age (years)   71.9 [68.5–78.1] 73.5 [69.0–79.0] 0.064
Male gender   235 (75.8%) 157 (72.4%) 0.37
Smoking status Never 102 (32.9%) 76 (35.0%) 0.90
Ex 177 (57.1%) 123 (56.7%)  
Current 28 (9.0%) 16 (7.4%)  
Missing 3 (1.0%) 2 (0.9%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)   27.3 [25.0–29.9] 29.7 [26.5–33.9] < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)   139.0 [124.0–154.0] 141.0 (132.0–157.0] 0.013
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)   79.0 [72.0–86.0] 77.0 (71.0–84.0] 0.097
Heart rate (pm)   59.0 [54.0–65.0] 64.0 (57.0–70.0] < 0.001
Number of shuttles completed (shuttle-walk test)   54 [35–71] 44 [26–61] < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Coronary artery disease   278 (89.7%) 101 (46.5%) < 0.001
 Myocardial infarction   163 (58.6%) 51 (50.0%) 0.13
 PCI   196 (70.5%) 69 (67.6%) 0.59
 CABG   97 (34.9%) 39 (38.2%) 0.55
 Hypertension   211 (68.1%) 202 (93.1%) < 0.001
 Stroke/TIA   14 (4.5%) 14 (6.5%) 0.33
 COPD   22 (7.1%) 11 (5.1%) 0.34
Medication
 Antiplatelet therapy   267 (86.1%) 147 (67.7%) < 0.001
 Beta blocker   239 (77.1%) 127 (58.5%) < 0.001
 ACE-inhibitor   157 (50.6%) 118 (54.4%) 0.40
 Angiotensin receptor blocker   77 (24.8%) 68 (31.3%) 0.10
 Calcium channel blocker   56 (18.1%) 54 (24.9%) 0.058
 Thiazides   33 (10.6%) 54 (24.9%) < 0.001
 Statin/lipid lowering drug   269 (86.8%) 166 (76.5%) 0.002
 Insulin   0 (0.0%) 38 (17.5%) < 0.001
 Metformin   0 (0.0%) 176 (81.1%) < 0.001
 Sulfunylureas   0 (0.0%) 41 (18.9%) < 0.001
 DPP4-inhibitor   0 (0.0%) 33 (15.2%) < 0.001
Echocardiography
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)   62.8 [56.5–66.0] 63.1 [59.2–66.9] 0.35
 Left ventricular mass (g/m2)   91.0 [78.5–109.9] 99.0 [84.2–114.1] 0.005
 Left ventricular hypertrophy   106 (34.2%) 87 (40.1%) 0.17
 Left atrial volume (g/m2)   30.8 [26.0–36.5] 29.4 [25.1–35.6] 0.32
 E/e′ ratio   8.9 [6.9–11.1] 10.1 [8.3–12.0] < 0.001
 E/A ratio   0.8 [0.7–1.0] 0.8 [0.7–1.0] 0.21
 TAPSE (mm)   21.4 [16.7–26.3] 22.5 [17.5–26.8] 0.28
 MAPSE (mm)   15.5 [13.6–17.7] 15.0 [13.1–17.4] 0.38
Laboratory
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)   72.0 [62.0–82.9] 72.8 [59.0–86.5] 0.75
 Urea (mmol/l)   7.5 [5.6–13.2] 10.7 [6.4–15.7] < 0.001
 Haemoglobin (g/dl)   14.2 [13.3–15.0] 13.8 [12.8–14.7] 0.002
 Sodium (mmol/l)   140.0 [138.0–141.0] 139.0 [137.0–141.0] 0.052
 Potassium (mmol/l)   4.3 [4.1–4.6] 4.3 [4.0–4.5] 0.12
 NT-proBNP, ng/l   205 [129–350] 229 [146–373] 0.25
 Galectin-3, ng/ml   15.4 [13.1–18.9] 17.4 [14.4–20.9] < 0.001
 High-sensitivity Troponin T, pg/ml   11.6 [8.2–16.0] 14.1 [10.3–21.1] < 0.001
  1. Values are median [interquartile range] or n (%)
  2. PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, TIA transient ischemic attack, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACE angiontensin-converting enzyme, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, TAPSE triscupid annular plane systolic excursion, MAPSE mitral annular plane systolic excursion, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate