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Table 2 Univariate analysis results in healthcare subjects compared to patients with and without diabetic foot

From: Assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic foot: correlations with endothelial dysfunction indices and markers of adipo-inflammatory dysfunction

Variables DFS (n = 63) NDFS (n = 30) Healthy (n = 30) pa
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 66.57 ± 9.54 61.20 ± 9.40 64.83 ± 6.48 0.08
SBP (mmHg) (mean ± SD) 132.81 ± 13.81 130.83 ± 17.62 128.00 ± 10.38 0.39
DBP (mmHg) (mean ± SD) 71.14 ± 11.30b 75.33 ± 10.08 77.66 ± 11.04 0.02
Height (cm) (mean ± SD) 168.33 ± 7.19c 161.96 ± 20.12 163.93 ± 5.74 0.03
Weight (kg) (mean ± SD) 84.25 ± 14.10b 87.10 ± 27.82b 73.06 ± 9.92 0.005
BMI (kg/m2) (mean ± SD) 29.54 ± 4.23 30.78 ± 6.67 28.08 ± 4.19 0.11
RHI (mean ± SD) 1.60 ± 0.33bc 2.01 ± 0.69 2.20 ± 0.38  < 0.0005
MMSE (mean ± SD) 26.77 ± 3.44 27.03 ± 2.53 27.96 ± 1.24 0.16
MMSE corrected for age (mean ± SD) 26.57 ± 3.33b 27.16 ± 2.38 28.14 ± 1.15 0.03
HbA1c (%) (mean ± SD) 8.07 ± 1.26 7.74 ± 1.71 0.29
RMSDD (ms) (mean ± SD) 81.46 ± 95.22 46.23 ± 53.93 86.11 ± 74.04 0.10
SDNN/5 min (ms) (mean ± SD) 66.39 ± 23.97 59.40 ± 16.19 71.75 ± 22.52 0.09
SD (ms) (mean ± SD) 87.83 ± 50.65 85.69 ± 37.72 101.38 ± 47.07 0.34
LF% (mean ± SD) 19.63 ± 11.08 24.06 ± 13.64 55.35 ± 222.94 0.33
HF% (mean ± SD) 21.23 ± 14.68c 11.10 ± 11.58 14.70 ± 11.15 0.002
LF/HF (mean ± SD) 1.63 ± 1.66c 3.18 ± 2.82b 1.07 ± 0.44  < 0.0005
Omentin-1 (ng/mL) (mean ± SD) 18.95 ± 3.60bc 21.80 ± 5.79b 31.16 ± 4.53  < 0.0005
Vaspine (mean ± SD) 0.20 ± 0.05 0.21 ± 0.58 0.19 ± 0.03 0.23
  1. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; RHI, reactive hyperemia index; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; RMSSD, root mean square of the successive differences in 5 min; SDNN, standard deviation of the NN (R-R) intervals; SD, standard deviation; LF, low frequency; HF, high frequency; LF/HF, low frequency/high frequency
  2. ap, intergroup differences among patient groups, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis with the Tukey test to determine pairwise intragroup differences
  3. bvs healthy subjects, cvs NDFS