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Table 1 Baseline and first follow-up characteristics of participants with T2DM across weight change categories at the baseline and after 3-year follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, Iran, 1999–2018

From: Weight change and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults with type 2 diabetes: more than 14 years of follow-up in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Weight change categories Lost > 5% Lost 3% to 5% Stable (± 3%) Gained 3% to 5% Gained > 5% Total
Number of participants (men) 123 (46) 87 (38) 348 (146) 73 (30) 132 (40) 763 (300)
  Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow- up
Continuous variables, mean ± SD
 Age (year) 55.1 ± 11.0 58.4 ± 11.1 53.5 ± 10.8 56.8 ± 11.1 53.6 ± 10.9 56.8 ± 10.9 51.9 ± 10.7 54.9 ± 10.7 53.1 ± 11.2 56.6 ± 11.2 53.6 ± 11.0 56.8 ± 11.0
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.9 ± 4.5 27.7 ± 4.4 29.7 ± 5.0 28.7 ± 4.8 29.0 ± 4.0 29.1 ± 4.1 28.0 ± 4.2 29.0 ± 4.5 27.9 ± 5.0 30.7 ± 5.4 28.9 ± 4.4 29.1 ± 4.6
 SBP (mmHg) 134.4 ± 21.6 129.8 ± 20.2 135.5 ± 23.9 133.7 ± 22.7 132.7 ± 22.0 130.8 ± 21.0 130.7 ± 22.6 129.9 ± 22.3 128.9 ± 22.1 131.3 ± 23.3 132.4 ± 22.3 131.0 ± 21.6
 DBP (mmHg) 84.0 ± 12.1 78.4 ± 11.7 83.0 ± 11.6 78.9 ± 11.5 82.3 ± 11.6 79.4 ± 10.5 81.6 ± 10.1 78.9 ± 9.2 80.6 ± 11.5 78.3 ± 11.7 82.3 ± 11.5 79.0 ± 10.9
 FPG (mmol/L)a 9.1 ± 3.1 9.8 ± 4.2 9.1 ± 3.4 9.4 ± 3.8 8.6 ± 3.2 8.6 ± 3.2 7.5 ± 3.2 7.5 ± 2.5 8.2 ± 3.9 7.8 ± 2.9 8.6 ± 3.4 8.7 ± 3.4
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)a 6.2 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.0 5.9 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.2 5.9 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.1
 e-GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 63.2 ± 10.4 66.4 ± 9.5 67.6 ± 11.6 69.3 ± 12.1 65.6 ± 10.7 69.4 ± 13.0 65.2 ± 11.1 71.4 ± 12.6 66.9 ± 12.5 68.2 ± 13.2 65.6 ± 11.2 68.9 ± 12.5
Categorical variables, number (%)
 Educational level, years
  < 6 83 (67.5) 78 (63.4) 44 (50.6) 47 (54.7) 219 (62.9) 217 (62.5) 41 (56.2) 42 (57.5) 78 (59.1) 79 (59.8) 465 (60.9) 463 (60.8)
  6–12 29 (23.6) 35 (28.5) 35 (40.2) 30 (34.9) 106 (30.5) 106 (30.5) 27 (37.0) 26 (35.6) 49 (37.1) 48 (36.4) 246 (32.2) 245 (32.2)
  > 12 11 (8.9) 10 (8.1) 8 (9.2) 9 (10.5) 23 (6.6) 24 (6.9) 5 (6.8) 5 (6.8) 5 (3.8) 5 (3.8) 52 (6.8) 53 (7.0)
  Current smoker 7 (5.7) 6 (4.9) 11 (12.6) 11 (12.6) 34 (9.8) 33 (9.5) 10 (14.1) 9 (12.3) 13 (9.9) 10 (7.6) 75 (9.9) 69 (9.0)
  Family history of premature CVD, yes 28 (22.8) 32 (26.0) 17 (19.5) 22 (25.3) 64 (18.4) 79 (22.7) 16 (21.9) 23 (31.5) 19 (14.4) 25 (18.9) 144 (18.9) 181 (23.7)
  GLD use, yes 47 (38.2) 51 (41.5) 27 (31.0) 40 (46.0) 104 (29.9) 149 (42.8) 22 (30.1) 26 (35.6) 36 (27.3) 59 (44.7) 236 (30.9) 325 (42.6)
  Anti-hypertensive drug use, yes 29 (23.6) 31 (25.2) 22 (25.3) 23 (26.4) 56 (16.1) 67 (19.3) 9 (12.3) 11 (15.1) 27 (20.5) 30 (22.7) 143 (18.7) 162 (21.2)
  Lipid-lowering drug use, yes 14 (11.4) 13 (10.6) 11 (12.6) 16 (18.4) 36 (10.3) 40 (11.5) 5 (6.8) 4 (5.5) 7 (5.3) 13 (9.8) 73 (9.6) 86 (11.3)
  1. For participants that enrolled at phase I (1999–2001) of TLGS, phase II (2001–2005) was considered as the follow-up for weight change calculation. For participants that enrolled at phase II (2001–2005) of TLGS, phase III (2005–2008) was considered as the follow-up for weight change calculation
  2. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, e-GFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CVD cardiovascular disease, GLD glucose-lowering drug
  3. aConversion factors from mmol/L to mg/dL were 18.02 for FPG and 38.67 for total cholesterol