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Table 5 Results of Cox survival analyses for the excess risks associated with hematologic parameters, divided into tertiles, for the occurrence of future microvascular complications

From: Importance of hematological parameters for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Outcomes
Hematologic parameters
Model 1
HR (95% CI)
Model 2
HR (95% CI)
Rethinopathy (n = 161)   
 Haemoglobin 0.57 (0.38–0.86)† 0.65 (0.42–1.00)
 RDW 1.40 (0.95–2.07) 1.49 (1.00–2.22)
 Leukocytes 1.33 (0.90–1.96) 1.46 (0.97–2.19)
 Neutrophyls 1.03 (0.71–1.50) 1.23 (0.83–1.82)
 Lymphocytes 1.20 (0.80–1.78) 1.34 (0.89–2.02)
 Monocytes 1.19 (0.81–1.75) 1.20 (0.80–1.80)
 Platelets 1.00 (0.68–1.48) 1.07 (0.72–1.60)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 0.97 (0.66–1.43) 0.97 (0.65–1.43)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 1.01 (0.68–1.49) 1.18 (0.78–1.76)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 0.93 (0.63–1.36) 0.84 (0.57–1.24)
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.40 (0.97–2.02) 1.38 (0.91–2.09)
Renal composite (n = 206)   
 Haemoglobin 0.67 (0.46–0.98)‡ 0.67 (0.45–0.98)‡
 RDW 1.13 (0.80–1.58) 1.10 (0.78–1.55)
 Leukocytes 1.47 (1.04–2.09)‡ 1.38 (0.97–1.98)
 Neutrophyls 1.25 (0.90–1.74) 1.19 (0.85–1.67)
 Lymphocytes 1.14 (0.81–1.61) 1.18 (0.82–1.69)
 Monocytes 1.18 (0.84–1.66) 1.10 (0.77–1.57)
 Platelets 1.02 (0.71–1.47) 1.06 (0.74–1.53)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.23 (0.88–1.71) 1.13 (0.80–1.59)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.75 (0.52–1.07) 0.78 (0.54–1.13)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.04 (0.74–1.45) 1.04 (0.74–1.47)
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.17 (0.84–1.64) 1.04 (0.73–1.49)
Microalbuminuria (n = 127)   
 Haemoglobin 0.70 (0.43–1.13) 0.65 (0.40–1.07)
 RDW 1.20 (0.77–1.86) 1.22 (0.78–1.91)
 Leukocytes 1.55 (0.99–2.43) 1.49 (0.95–2.35)
 Neutrophyls 1.43 (0.94–2.18) 1.36 (0.88–2.09)
 Lymphocytes 1.09 (0.71–1.69) 1.17 (0.74–1.84)
 Monocytes 1.01 (0.66–1.54) 0.99 (0.64–1.53)
 Platelets 1.24 (0.77–1.99) 1.22 (0.75–1.97)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.23 (0.81–1.86) 1.12 (0.73–1.72)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.77 (0.48–1.21) 0.80 (0.50–1.28)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.02 (0.66–1.58) 0.97 (0.62–1.51)
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.00 (0.64–1.55) 0.95 (0.60–1.51)
Renal failure (n = 104)   
 Haemoglobin 0.50 (0.29–0.87)‡ 0.58 (0.33–1.01)
 RDW 1.13 (0.69–1.83) 1.10 (0.68–1.80)
 Leukocytes 1.35 (0.83–2.18) 1.19 (0.73–1.95)
 Neutrophyls 1.17 (0.74–1.86) 1.11 (0.69–1.78)
 Lymphocytes 1.10 (0.68–1.78) 1.03 (0.62–1.71)
 Monocytes 1.67 (1.01–2.74)‡ 1.50 (0.89–2.53)
 Platelets 0.82 (0.50–1.35) 0.87 (0.53–1.45)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.54 (0.95–2.47) 1.47 (0.90–2.41)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.56 (0.33–0.93)‡ 0.58 (0.34–0.99)‡
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.13 (0.72–1.79) 1.17 (0.73–1.88)
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.30 (0.82–2.07) 1.09 (0.66–1.81)
Peripheral neuropathy (n = 179)   
 Haemoglobin 0.70 (0.43–1.14) 1.45 (0.80–2.64)
 RDW 1.56 (0.98–2.48) 0.69 (0.39–1.21)
 Leukocytes 1.41 (0.89–2.22) 1.35 (0.80–2.28)
 Neutrophyls 1.33 (0.84–2.10) 1.33 (0.78–2.24)
 Lymphocytes 0.77 (0.48–1.23) 0.79 (0.46–1.35)
 Monocytes 1.02 (0.65–1.61) 0.98 (0.58–1.66)
 Platelets 0.92 (0.57–1.48) 0.90 (0.52–1.56)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.54 (0.97–2.46) 1.35 (0.79–2.31)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.76 (0.47–1.23) 0.75 (0.43–1.30)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 0.90 (0.57–1.41) 0.92 (0.54–1.54)
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.24 (0.79–1.95) 1.41 (0.82–2.43)
  1. Values are hazard ratios of the highest tertile subgroup in relation to the lowest one and their 95% confidence intervals estimated by Cox analyses; except for peripheral neuropathy endpoint, which are odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals estimated by logistic regressions. †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.05. The cut-off values of tertiles of each hematologic parameter were shown on Table 3
  2. Model 1 adjusted for age and sex
  3. Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, smoking, physical activity, office systolic BP, number and classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in use, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline, baseline HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol, and use of insulin, statins and aspirin; except for peripheral neuropathy where BMI was substituted by body height and further adjusted for the time interval between baseline and follow-up neuropathy examinations
  4. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, RDW red cell distribution width