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Table 3 Associations between skin AF and continuous measures of vascular stiffness according to glycemic strata in the OGTT subset

From: Advanced glycation end-products, measured as skin autofluorescence, associate with vascular stiffness in diabetic, pre-diabetic and normoglycemic individuals: a cross-sectional study

  Beta coefficients (95% CI) for skin AF, arbitrary units
cfPWV, m/s aoPWV, m/s aoAIx, % brAIx, % ABI
Glycemic status according to any abnormal glycemic value
Normoglycemic, n = 455 0.41 (− 0.09; 0.92) 0.27 (− 0.06; 0.61) 0.44 (− 1.59; 2.48) 0.08 (− 5.70; 5.87) − 0.02 (− 0.06; 0.02)
Prediabetes, n = 795 0.85 (0.44; 1.26) 0.57 (0.29; 0.84) 1.74 (− 0.0002; 3.48) 8.02 (3.43; 12.62) − 0.02 (− 0.05; 0.007)
Glycemic status according to HbA1c
Normoglycemic, n = 994 0.62 (0.26; 0.98) 0.41 (0.17; 0.65) 1.35 (− 0.16; 2.87) 4.69 (0.64; 8.74) − 0.03 (− 0.05; − 0.001)
Prediabetes, n = 338 0.78 (0.16; 1.40) 0.53 (0.11; 0.94) 0.94 (− 1.38; 3.27) 5.42 (− 0.93; 11.77) − 0.01 (− 0.06; 0.03)
Glycemic status according to FPG
Normoglycemic, n = 573 0.47 (0.03; 0.92) 0.31 (0.01; 0.61) 0.22 (− 1.59; 2.03) 1.60 (− 3.54; 6.73) − 0.01 (− 0.04; 0.02)
Prediabetes (IFG), n = 709 0.93 (0.48; 1.38) 0.62 (0.32; 0.92) 2.23 (0.33; 4.14) 8.85 (3.90; 13.79) − 0.03 (− 0.06; 0.003)
Glycemic status according to 2 h plasma glucose
Normoglycemic, n = 1079 0.68 (0.34; 1.02) 0.45 (0.22; 0.68) 1.08 (− 0.35; 2.51) 4.19 (0.33; 8.06) − 0.03 (− 0.05; − 0.008)
Prediabetes (IGT), n = 208 0.74 (− 0.08; 1.56) 0.49 (− 0.06; 1.04) 2.29 (− 0.77; 5.35) 7.98 (− 0.27; 16.22) 0.03 (− 0.03; 0.09)
  1. N = 1348. Analyses were performed on fully adjusted model 2
  2. Glycemic status was defined as follows:
  3. According to HbA1c: normoglycemic, HbA1c < 5.7%; prediabetes, 6.5% > HbA1c ≥ 5.7%
  4. According to FPG: normoglycemic, FPG < 5.6 mmol/l; prediabetes (IFG), 7 mmol/l > FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/l
  5. According to 2 h plasma glucose: normoglycemic, 2 h plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol/l; prediabetes (IGT), 11.1 mmol/l > 2 h plasma glucose ≥ 7.8 mmol/l
  6. According to any abnormal glycemic parameter: normoglycemic, all three criteria fulfilled: HbA1c < 5.7% and FPG < 5.6 mmol/l and 2 h plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol/l; prediabetes, 6.5% > HbA1c ≥ 5.7% or IFG or IGT
  7. AF autofluorescence, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, PWV pulse wave velocity, AIx augmentation index, ABI ankle-brachial index, ao aortic, br brachial, cf carotid-femoral, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin 1c, FPG fasting plasma glucose, IFG impaired fasting glucose, IGT impaired glucose tolerance