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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics of the EPIC-DZD study according to quintiles of skin AF

From: Advanced glycation end-products, measured as skin autofluorescence, associate with vascular stiffness in diabetic, pre-diabetic and normoglycemic individuals: a cross-sectional study

Skin AF (arbitrary units) 1st quintile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 5th quintile
1.70 (0.22) 2.00 (0.12) 2.23 (0.12) 2.49 (0.15) 2.92 (0.39)
Sociodemographics
Age, y 64.0 (12.0) 65.0 (12.0) 67.0 (11.0) 69.0 (12.0) 73.0 (11.0)
Women, n (%) 559 (79.1) 509 (71.9) 431 (61.1) 347 (49.1) 264 (37.3)
BMI, kg/m2 25.8 (5.44) 25.9 (5.85) 26.7 (5.44) 26.2 (5.65) 27.0 (5.44)
Waist circumference, cm 87.2 (17.3) 90.0 (19.0) 92.4 (18.3) 93.7 (18.2) 96.8 (16.3)
Obesity, n (%) 132 (18.7) 142 (20.1) 150 (21.3) 162 (19.5) 182 (25.7)
Recreational physical activity
Biking, h/week 1.50 (4.00) 2.00 (5.00) 2.00 (5.00) 2.00 (5.00) 1.00 (4.00)
Sport, h/week 2.00 (2.83) 2.00 (3.00) 2.00 (3.00) 1.50 (3.00) 1.42 (3.00)
Smoking status
Current smoker, n (%) 37 (5.2) 48 (6.8) 49 (6.9) 72 (10.2) 92 (13.0)
Former smoker, n (%) 220 (31.1) 250 (35.3) 300 (42.5) 285 (40.3) 325 (46.0)
SBP, mmHg 137 (24.0) 137 (25.0) 139 (24.0) 141 (24.0) 141 (24.0)
DBP, mmHg 80.0 (12.0) 81.0 (13.0) 81.0 (13.0) 80.0 (13.0) 78.0 (14.0)
Pulse, beats/min 67.0 (12.0) 67.0 (12.0) 66.0 (13.0) 66.0 (14.0) 67.0 (14.0)
Antidiabetic treatment, n (%) 53 (7.5) 71 (10.0) 95 (13.5) 124 (17.5) 204 (28.9)
Lipid-lowering treatment, n (%) 138 (19.5) 146 (20.6) 189 (26.8) 188 (26.6) 290 (41.0)
Prevalent hypertension, n (%) 499 (70.6) 500 (70.6) 544 (77.1) 553 (78.2) 614 (86.9)
Antihypertensive treatment, n (%) 324 (45.8) 335 (47.3) 381 (54.0) 393 (55.6) 476 (67.3)
Prevalent HF, n (%) 5 (0.7) 4 (0.6) 8 (1.1) 4 (0.6) 12 (1.7)
Prior stroke, n (%) 11 (1.6) 17 (2.4) 11 (1.6) 10 (1.4) 17 (2.4)
Prior MI, n (%) 2 (0.3) 7 (1.0) 9 (1.3) 19 (2.7) 25 (3.5)
Biomarkers
HbA1c, % 5.50 (0.50) 5.50 (0.40) 5.50 (0.50) 5.50 (0.60) 5.70 (0.80)
HbA1c, mmol/mol 36.6 (3.33) 36.6 (2.66) 36.6 (3.33) 36.6 (4.08) 38.8 (5.45)
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 5.67 (1.39) 5.58 (1.32) 5.49 (1.62) 5.44 (1.60) 5.16 (1.62)
Total cholesterol, mmol/la 5.92 (1.35) 5.86 (1.24) 5.81 (1.35) 5.73 (1.26) 5.63 (1.25)
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/l 1.63 (0.55) 1.57 (0.59) 1.51 (0.50) 1.49 (0.55) 1.41 (0.53)
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/la 1.66 (0.53) 1.60 (0.58) 1.57 (0.49) 1.53 (0.55) 1.50 (0.53)
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/l 3.50 (1.30) 3.50 (1.20) 3.40 (1.40) 3.40 (1.5) 3.10 (1.60)
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/la 3.78 (1.10) 3.70 (1.15) 3.60 (1.12) 3.68 (1.10) 3.50 (1.00)
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.28 (0.84) 1.29 (0.88) 1.37 (0.85) 1.33 (0.93) 1.40 (1.12)
CRP, mg/l 1.30 (1.90) 1.40 (2.00) 1.40 (2.00) 1.50 (2.20) 1.60 (2.40)
Creatinine, µmol/l 69.0 (18.0) 69.0 (17.0) 72.0 (18.0) 76.0 (21.0) 79.0 (22.0)
  1. N = 3535. Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension, or use of antihypertensive medication, or systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg during blood pressure measurement in the study center. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
  2. AF autofluorescence, EPIC-DZD Sub-study of European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, CRP reactive protein C
  3. aBlood lipids adjusted for lipid-lowering treatment. Data are presented as median (IQR) or number (%), as appropriate