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Table 1 Characteristics of the included cohort studies

From: Triglyceride–glucose index and the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

Study Country Design Characteristics of participants Number of participants Mean age (years) Male (%) DM (%) TyG index analysis Follow-up duration (years) Outcome validation Outcomes reported Variables adjusted
Sanchez-Inigo [19] Spain PC First-time attendee outpatients to an internal medicine department without ASCVDs 5,014 54.4 61.2 5.2 Q5:Q1 8.8 ICD-10 Composite ASCVDs (505), CAD (233), stroke (157), and PAD (74) Age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern, HTN, T2DM, antiplatelet therapy, HDL-C, and LDL-C
Salazar [20] Argentina PC Community population without DM or ASCVDs 723 50.3 32.8 0 Q4:Q1–Q3; Continuous 8.2 Clinical evaluation Composite ASCVDs (42) Age, sex, smoking, LDL-C, BMI, and aspirin, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug use
Su [21] China RC T2DM patients without previous ASCVDs 3,524 61.7 49.1 100 Continuous 5.9 Medical record review Composite ASCVDs (215) Age, sex, HTN, BMI, HDL-C, eGFR, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug use
Li [18] China RC Participants aged over 60 years without previous ASCVDs who participated in a routine health check-up program 6,078 70.5 53.1 11.8 Q4:Q1; Continuous 5.5 ICD-10 Composite ASCVDs (705), CAD (500), and stroke (234) Age, sex, living alone, current smoker, alcohol consumption, exercise, BMI, SBP, HDL-C, LDL-C, and T2DM
Hong [23] Korea RC Community population without ASCVDs 5,593,134 53.0 50.5 3.7 Q4:Q1 8.2 ICD-10 Composite ASCVDs (146,744), CAD (62,577), and stroke (89,120) Age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, low socioeconomic status, BMI, HTN, and TC
Park [24] Korea PC Community population without DM or ASCVDs 16,455 46.1 51.2 0 Q4:Q1 2.4 ICD-10 CAD (322) Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, mean arterial BP, hs-CRP, CKD, and hypertension medication
Barzegar [22] Iran PC Community population without ASCVDs 7,521 46.7 44.7 13.2 Q4:Q1; Continuous 16.1 Clinical evaluation Composite ASCVDs (1084), and CAD (924) Age, sex, WC, BMI, educational level, smoking status, physical activity, family history of CVD, T2DM, HTN, LDL-C, HDL-C, and lipid-lowering drugs
Tian [25] China PC Community population without ASCVDs 98,849 51.8 79.8 3.07 Q4:Q1 11.0 ICD-10 CAD (1555) Age, sex, education, income, smoking, alcohol abuse, physical activity, BMI, SBP, DBP, HTN, DM, dyslipidemia, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, and HDL-C, LDL-C, and hs-CRP levels at baseline
  1. TyG: triglyceride–glucose; DM: diabetes mellitus; PC: prospective cohort; RC: retrospective cohort; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; ASCVDs: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; CVD: cardiovascular disease; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition; CAD: coronary artery disease; PAD: peripheral artery disease; HTN: hypertension; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BMI: body mass index; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtrating rate; SBP: systolic blood pressure; BP: blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; TC: total cholesterol; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; CKD: chronic kidney disease