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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comorbidities in AF patients with and without DM

From: Prognostic significance of diabetes mellitus in patients with atrial fibrillation

Clinical characteristics Total population (n = 1109) AF with DM (n = 373) AF without DM (n = 736) P value (comparing DM vs no-DM)
Gender M: 603 F: 506 M:196 F: 177 M: 407 F: 329 0.350
Age (years) 73.6 ± 10.9 75.2 ± 8.8 72.9 ± 11.7 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.5 ± 5.4 29.5 ± 5.6 28.0 ± 5.4 < 0.001
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by CKD-EPI (mL/min/1.73 m2) 60.4 ± 23.6 57.0 ± 22.4 64.7 ± 23.6 < 0.001
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 49.2 ± 12.2 48.4 ± 12.3 49.7 ± 12.1 0.113
NT-pro-BNP 2430.2 ± 5525.3 2331.5 ± 4991.1 2289.5 ± 5460.2 0.915
Glycated hemoglobin (%) 6.52 ± 1.10 6.85 ± 1.14 5.77 ± 0.43* < 0.001
Medical histories N (%)    
 Hypertension 888 (80.1) 317 (87.3) 571 (78.0) < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 527 (47.5) 223 (61.4) 304 (41.5) < 0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 142 (12.8) 59 (16.2) 83 (11.3) 0.028
 Heart failure 553 (49.9) 213 (58.8) 340 (46.5) < 0.001
 Strokes 164 (14.8) 73 (20.1) 91 (12.5) 0.001
 Myocardial infarction 228 (20.6) 91 (25.1) 137 (18.7) 0.018
 Chronic kidney disease 162 (14.6) 84 (23.1) 78 (10.7) < 0.001
 Vascular disease 509 (45.9) 210 (57.9) 299 (40.8) < 0.001
Treatment and risk stratification scores
 Rhythm control treatment 409 (36.9%) 109 (29.2%) 300 (40.7%) 0.002
 Use of antiplatelet(s) at discharge 218 (19.7%) 97 (31.5%) 121 (15.8%) 0.002
Use of oral anticoagulant(s) at discharge:     0.672
Vitamin K antagonist 282 (25.4%) 101 (27.1%) 181 (24.6%)  
NOAC 522 (47.1%) 171 (45.8%) 351 (47.7%)  
HAS-BLED score at discharge 1.7 ± 1 2 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1 < 0.001
CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score at discharge 4.4 ± 1.9 5.6 ± 1.6 3.8 ± 1.8 < 0.001
  1. Significant p-values are marked in italics
  2. *Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) baseline value was documented only in 122/736 (16.6%) AF patients without DM participating in our study
  3. AF: atrial fibrillation; DM: diabetes mellitus; CKD-EPI: Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation; NT-pro-BNP: N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide; NOAC: Non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulant; HAS-BLED: Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile International Normalized Ratio, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly; CHA2DS2-VASc: Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65–74 years, Sex category