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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort

From: The additive effects of kidney dysfunction on left ventricular function and strain in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients verified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

  Controls (n = 52) T2DM patients
Without CKD
(n = 72)
With CKD
(n = 33)
Male, n (%) 36 (69.2) 50 (69.4) 23 (69.7)
Age, years 56.4 ± 9.9 57.1 ± 8.5 56.9 ± 15.7
BMI, kg/m2 22.5 (20.5–24.5) 23.9 ± 2.7 24.5 ± 3.4
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 119.2 ± 5.3 125.5 (116.0–130.0) 132.6 ± 30.9a,b
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 80.0 (75.0–83.0) 78.7 ± 10.0 80.2 ± 18.2
Rest Heart rate, bmp 74.2 ± 9.9 73.6 ± 11.2 87.8 ± 11.2a,b
Diabetes duration, years 6.0 (3.0–9.9) 10.0 ± 5.3b
Diabetic status
 Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 9.2 (7.3–11.0) 7.4 (6.4–12.0)
 HbA1c, % 7.6 (6.6–9.0) 7.9 ± 1.2
Lipid status
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.3 (3.6–5.1) 4.3 (3.5–5.2)
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.4 (1.0-2.2) 1.4 (1.2–2.3)
 HDL, mmol/L 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.0 ± 0.4b
 LDL, mmol/L 2.4 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 2.1b
Kidney function indices
 Creatinine, umol/L 70.3 ± 15.5 142.6 (121.0-200.0)b
 eGFR, ml/min/1.732 m2 96.1 ± 14.5 38.2 ± 14.8b
 Urea, mmol/L 5.7 (4.7–6.8) 10.0 (7.2–12.3)b
 Uric acid, umol/L 321.7 ± 105.8 479.0 ± 154.4b
Complications, n (%)
 Retinopathy 4 (5.6) 4 (12.1)
 Neuropathy 4 (5.6) 5 (15.2)
 Peripheral vascular disease 2 (2.8) 5 (15.2)b
 Atrial fibrillation 4 (5.6) 3 (9.1)
Medications, n (%)
 Insulin 20 (27.8) 18 (54.5)b
 Biguanides 41 (56.9) 19 (57.6)
 Sulfonylureas 3 (3.9) 3 (9.1)
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor 18 (25.0) 9 (27.3)
 GLP-1/DPP-4 inhibitor 5 (6.9) 4 (12.1)
 SGLT2 inhibitor 10 (13.9) 5 (15.2)
 Statin 13 (18.1) 17 (51.5)b
 ACEI and/or ARB 12 (16.7) 8 (24.2)
 β-blockers 12(16.7) 14 (42.4)b
 Calcium channel blocker 7 (9.7) 10 (13.9)b
 Loop diuretics 5 (6.9) 14 (19.4)b
 Spironolactone 5 (6.9) 13 (18.1)b
 Thiazides 2 (2.8) 2 (2.8)
  1. aT2DM patients vs. controls (P < 0.05)
  2. bT2DM patients with CKD vs. T2DM patients without CKD (P < 0.05)
  3. T2DM type 2 diabetes diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, eGFR estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, SGLT2 sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker