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Table 1 Patient characteristics according to documentation of heart failure

From: Heart failure documentation in outpatients with diabetes and volume overload: an observational cohort study from the Diabetes Collaborative Registry

  All Patients on loop diuretics
n = 215,957
Heart failure documented
n = 110,809
Heart failure not documented
n = 105,148
Standardized differencea
Age (years) 70.6 ± 11.9 72.1 ± 11.8 69.5 ± 11.9 22.7%
Men 106,584/225,111 (47.3%) 48,867/91,965 (53.1%) 57,717/133,146 (43.3%) 19.7%
Race 4.4%
 White 135,394/161,754 (83.7%) 54,130/65,360 (82.8%) 81,264/96,394 (84.3%)  
 Black 23,239/161,754 (14.4%) 9804/65,360 (15.0%) 13,435/96,394 (13.9%)  
 Other 3001/161,754 (1.9%) 1370/65,360 (2.1%) 1631/96,394 (1.7%)  
 Multiracial 120/161,754 (0.1%) 56/65,360 (0.1%) 64/96,394 (0.1%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 34.4 ± 8.7 (n = 161,705) 33.3 ± 8.5 (n = 67,707) 35.2 ± 8.7 (n = 93,998) 21.8%
Current smoker 67,481/215,433 (31.3%) 28,506/88,703 (32.1%) 38,975/126,730 (30.8%) 10.2%
Hypertension 198,558 (88.2%) 83,614 (90.9%) 114,944 (86.3%) 14.5%
Dyslipidemia 170,251 (75.6%) 72,169 (78.5%) 98,082 (73.7%) 11.3%
Coronary artery disease 124,602 (55.3%) 64,937 (70.6%) 59,665 (44.8%) 54.1%
Prior myocardial infarction 26,765 (11.9%) 16,727 (18.2%) 10,038 (7.5%) 32.2%
Prior stroke 48,692 (21.6%) 23,257 (25.3%) 25,435 (19.1%) 14.9%
Atrial fibrillation/flutter 70,661 (31.4%) 41,917 (45.6%) 28,744 (21.6%) 52.5%
Chronic kidney disease 10,131 (4.5%) 4429 (4.8%) 5702 (4.3%) 2.6%
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129.0 ± 18.4 (n = 211,968) 126.7 ± 18.7 (n = 87,160) 130.6 ± 18.0 (n = 124,808) 21.2%
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.6 ± 10.8 (n = 211,781) 71.4 ± 11.0 (n = 87,079) 73.5 ± 10.7 (n = 124,702) 19.8%
LV function documented 97,728 (43.4%) 54,560 (59.3%) 43,168 (32.4%) 56.1%
LV function 67.6%
 Hyperdynamic (> 70%) 5464/97,728 (5.6%) 2015/54,560 (3.7%) 3449/43,168 (8.0%)  
 Normal (50–70%) 60,698/97,728 (62.1%) 28,108/54,560 (51.5%) 32,590/43,168 (75.5%)  
 Mildly reduced (40–49%) 12,636/97,728 (12.9%) 8785/54,560 (16.1%) 3851/43,168 (8.9%)  
 Moderately reduced (30–39%) 9606/97,728 (9.8%) 7762/54,560 (14.2%) 1844/43,168 (4.3%)  
 Severely reduced (< 30%) 9324/97,728 (9.5%) 7890/54,560 (14.5%) 1434/43,168 (3.3%)  
Beta blocker 174,779 (77.6%) 80,424 (87.4%) 94,355 (70.9%) 41.7%
ACE inhibitor or ARB 166,536 (74.0%) 68,787 (74.8%) 97,749 (73.4%) 3.2%
Diabetes medications
 Insulin 81,480 (36.2%) 33,705 (36.6%) 47,775 (35.9%) 1.6%
 Metformin 108,987 (48.4%) 41,894 (45.6%) 67,093 (50.4%) 9.7%
 Sulfonylurea 66,620 (29.6%) 28,085 (30.5%) 38,535 (28.9%) 3.5%
 Thiazolidinedione 14,920 (6.6%) 4732 (5.1%) 10,188 (7.7%) 10.3%
 DPP-4 inhibitor 34,038 (15.1%) 13,149 (14.3%) 20,889 (15.7%) 3.9%
 GLP-1 agonist 19,384 (8.6%) 5705 (6.2%) 13,679 (10.3%) 14.8%
 SGLT-2 inhibitor 13,462 (6.0%) 4015 (4.4%) 9447 (7.1%) 11.8%
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, n (%), or n/N (%) if reported data are lower than column header
  2. LV left ventricular, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, DPP dipeptidyl peptidase, GLP glucagon-like peptide, SGLT sodium–glucose cotransporter
  3. a> 10% is considered a clinical relevant difference [14]