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Table 4 Management and outcomes of Covid-19 patients according to sex and DM status

From: Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Parameters (%) Males Females p-value Non-DM DM p-value
N 300 139 139 300
On admission    NS    NS
 Ward 242 (80.7) 118 (84.9)   118 (84.9) 242 (80.7)  
ICU 58 (19.3) 21 (15.1)   21 (15.1) 58 (19.3)  
Required O2 on arrival to ER 124 (41.3) 54 (38.8) NS 43 (30.9) 135 (45.0) 0.006
Antiviral 10 (3.3) 8 (5.8) NS 9 (6.5) 9 (3.0) NS
Tocilizumab 19 (6.3) 6 (4.3) NS 4 (2.9) 21 (7.0) NS
Hydroxychloroquine 4 (1.3) 4 (2.9) NS 5 (3.6) 3 (1.0) NS
 Antibiotics 272 (90.7) 117 (84.2) 0.05 106 (76.3) 283 (94.3) < 0.001
 Dexamethasone 164 (54.7) 69 (50.0) NS 50 (36.2) 183 (61.0) < 0.001
 Required Intubation 54 (18.2) 23 (16.5) NS 17 (12.3) 60 (20.3) 0.04
 Transferred to ICU 82 (27.3) 41 (29.7) NS 32 (23.4) 91 (30.5) NS
Outcome
 Mortality 55 (18.6) 22 (16.3) NS 17 (12.3) 60 (20.5) 0.04
 Discharged/Recovered 234 (79.9) 109 (81.3) NS 118 (86.1) 225 (77.6) NS
Time lapse from diagnosis [median number of days (min–max)]
 Admission 1 (1–37) 1 (1–32) NS 1 (1–19) 1 (1–37) NS
 Intubation 1 (1–23) 1 (1–19) NS 1 (1–20) 1 (1–23) NS
 ICU admission 2 (1–20) 3 (1–16) NS 3.0 (1–16) 3 (1–20) NS
 Discharge 10 (1–50) 11 (1–50) NS 10 (2–50) 10 (1–50) NS
 Mortality 13.5 (1–47) 11 (1–29) NS 15 (1–28) 12 (1–47) NS
  1. Significant at p < 0.05