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Table 2 Presenting symptoms and vital signs of Covid-19 patients on admission

From: Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Parameters All Males Females p-value Non-DM DM p-value
N 439 300 139 139 300
Symptoms
 Fever (%) 330 (75.2) 236 (80.3) 94 (68.6) 0.01 97 (70.8) 233 (77.7) NS
 Cough (%) 303 (70.0) 208 (70.3) 95 (69.3) NS 83 (60.1) 220 (74.6) 0.002
 Dyspnea (%) 316 (72.8) 224 (75.7) 92 (66.7) NS 83 (60.1) 233 (78.7) < 0.001
Nausea/vomiting (%) 100 (23.1) 68 (23.0) 32 (23.4) NS 29 (21.0) 71 (24.1) NS
 Diarrhea (%) 92 (21.3) 71 (24.1) 21 (15.3) 0.04 33 (24.1) 59 (20.0) NS
 Anosmia (%) 20 (4.6) 11 (3.7) 9 (6.5) NS 9 (6.5) 11 (3.7) NS
 Ageusia (%) 23 (5.3) 15 (5.1) 8 (5.8) NS 6 (4.3) 17 (5.7) NS
 Myalgia (%) 41 (9.5) 28 (9.3) 13 (9.4) NS 14 (10.2) 27 (9.1) NS
Vital signs*
 Temperature (°C) 37.6 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 0.9 37.5 ± 0.8 NS 37.5 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 0.9 NS
 Heart rate (beats/minute) 96.6 ± 17.9 96.4 ± 17.4 97.1 ± 19.1 NS 97.8 ± 17.6 96.1 ± 18.1 NS
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 25.4 ± 8.9 26.1 ± 9.8 23.9 ± 6.4 0.01 23.8 ± 6.4 26.1 ± 9.8 0.009
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.0 ± 19.9 125.7 ± 18.8 123.7 ± 22.4 NS 120.8 ± 16.3 127.0 ± 21.2 0.02
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.2 ± 13.2 74.0 ± 12.2 71.4 ± 15.1 NS 72.8 ± 11.9 73.4 ± 13.8 NS
 SpO2 (%) 91.0 ± 8.7 90.8 ± 9.2 91.6 ± 7.4 NS 92.8 ± 7.9 90.2 ± 8.9 NS
  1. *Denotes p-values adjusted for age and BMI in males and females; age, sex and BMI in non-DM and DM; significant at p < 0.05