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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects according to SBP/DBP categories

From: Blood pressure levels and cardiovascular risk according to age in patients with diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Characteristic  < 120/ < 70 mmHg   120–129/70–79 mmHg   130–139/80–89 mmHg   140–149/90–99 mmHg    ≥ 150/ ≥ 100 mmHg   P value Total
N 10,077 4.18% 59,116 24.51% 99,595 41.30% 49,915 20.70% 22,445 9.31%   241,148 100%
Age, median (IQR), years 56 (48–64)   57 (49–64)   57(49–64)   59 (50–66)   62 (53–68)    < 0.001 58 (50–66)  
Sex             < 0.001   
 Men 3604 35.76% 27,612 46.71% 52,940 53.16% 26,277 52.64% 11,374 50.67%   121,807 50.51%
 Women 6473 64.24% 31,504 53.29% 46,655 46.84% 23,638 47.36% 11,071 49.33%   119,341 49.49%
Body mass index, mean (SD), kg/m2 23.31 (3.06)   24.49 (3.15)   25.12 (3.18)   25.35 (3.29)   25.33 (3.51)    < 0.001 24.96 (3.26)  
  < 18.5 479 4.75% 1158 1.96% 1224 1.23% 560 1.12% 353 1.57%   3774 1.57%
 18.5–22.9 4269 42.36% 17,432 29.49% 22,792 22.88% 10,728 21.49% 5146 22.93%   60,367 25.03%
 23.0–24.9 2507 24.88% 15,863 26.83% 25,771 25.88% 12,251 24.54% 5330 23.75%   61,722 25.60%
  ≥ 25.0 2822 28.00% 24,663 41.72% 49,808 50.01% 26,376 52.84% 11,616 51.75%   115,285 47.81%
BP, mean (SD), mmHg
 Systolic BP 110.03 (6.14)   121.59 (5.43)   132.06 (4.91)   142.87 (4.01)   156.98 (7.87)    < 0.001 133.13  
 Diastolic BP 65.68 (3.19)   74.72 (3.35)   81.81 (4.21)   86.82 (5.63)   91.92 (7.77)    < 0.001 81.38  
Smoking             < 0.001   
 Never 7320 72.64% 39,755 67.25% 65,049 65.31% 33,616 67.35% 15,748 70.16%   161,488 66.97%
 Past 1211 12.02% 9563 16.18% 18,138 18.21% 8629 17.29% 3271 14.57%   40,812 16.92%
 Current 1546 15.34% 9798 16.57% 16,408 16.47% 7670 15.37% 3426 15.26%   38,848 16.11%
Physical activity, times/week             < 0.001   
 0 5461 54.19% 31,021 52.47% 50,802 51.01% 26,683 53.46% 12,978 57.82%   126,945 52.64%
 1–2 1498 14.87% 8590 14.53% 14,609 14.67% 7041 14.11% 3165 14.10%   34,903 14.47%
 3–4 1142 11.33% 7141 12.08% 12,414 12.46% 5860 11.74% 2250 10.02%   28,807 11.95%
 5–6 835 8.29% 5205 8.80% 9001 9.04% 4098 8.21% 1481 6.60%   20,620 8.55%
 7 1141 11.32% 7159 12.11% 12,769 12.82% 6233 12.49% 2571 11.45%   29,873 12.39%
Alcohol consumption, times/week             < 0.001   
 0 7676 76.17% 40,734 68.91% 62,821 63.08% 31,182 62.47% 14,365 64.00%   156,778 67.40%
  < 1 1146 11.37% 7279 12.31% 12,906 12.96% 5790 11.60% 2225 9.91%   29,346 12.62%
 1–2 860 8.53% 7531 12.74% 16,077 16.14% 8219 16.47% 3449 15.37%   36,136 15.54%
 3–4 221 2.19% 1948 3.30% 4433 4.45% 2517 5.04% 1217 5.42%   10,336 4.44%
  ≥ 5 174 1.73% 1624 2.75% 3358 3.37% 2207 4.42% 1189 5.30%    0.00%
Household income, quartiles             < 0.001   
 First (highest) 3708 36.80% 21,254 35.95% 35,335 35.48% 16,743 33.54% 6866 30.59%   83,906 34.79%
 Second 2470 24.51% 14,685 24.84% 24,505 24.60% 12,246 24.53% 5435 24.21%   59,341 24.61%
 Third 1920 19.05% 11,488 19.43% 19,105 19.18% 10,208 20.45% 4822 21.48%   47,543 19.72%
 Fourth (lowest) 1979 19.64% 11,689 19.77% 20,650 20.73% 10,718 21.47% 5322 23.71%   50,358 20.88%
Fasting blood glucose, mean (SD), mg/dL 114.52 (43.59)   117.74 (43.57)   117.80 (41.65)   119.55 (42.73)   123.60 (47.00)    < 0.001 118.55 (42.99)  
  < 100.0 4884 48.47% 24,654 41.70% 39,129 39.29% 18,280 36.62% 7515 33.48%   94,462 39.17%
 100.0–125.9 2736 27.15% 18,458 31.22% 33,650 33.79% 17,310 34.68% 7567 33.71%   79,721 33.06%
  ≥ 126.0 2457 24.38% 16,004 27.07% 26,816 26.93% 14,325 28.70% 7363 32.80%   66,965 27.77%
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 186.85 (39.11)   190.71 (41.34)   193.54 (42.84)   196.51 (46.45)   199.20 (47.34)    < 0.001 193.71 (43.64)  
  < 200.0 6615 65.64% 36,604 61.92% 59,020 59.26% 28,087 56.27% 12,023 53.57%   142,349 59.03%
 200.0–239.9 2530 25.11% 16,234 27.46% 28,763 28.88% 15,238 30.53% 7005 31.21%   69,770 28.93%
  ≥ 240.0 932 9.25% 6278 10.62% 11,812 11.86% 6590 13.20% 3417 15.22%   29,029 12.04%
Aspirin             < 0.001   
 No 7351 72.95% 42,226 71.43% 70,117 70.40% 35,113 70.35% 15,832 70.54%   170,639 70.76%
 Yes 2726 27.05% 16,890 28.57% 29,478 29.60% 14,802 29.65% 6613 29.46%   70,509 29.24%
Statin             < 0.001   
 No 7979 79.18% 47,773 80.81% 82,682 83.02% 42,381 84.91% 19,298 85.98%   200,113 82.98%
 Yes 2098 20.82% 11,343 19.19% 16,913 16.98% 7534 15.09% 3147 14.02%   41,035 17.02%
Aspirin or statin             < 0.001   
 No 6217 61.69% 36,379 61.54% 62,035 62.29% 31,623 63.35% 14,373 64.04%   150,627 62.46%
 Yes 3860 38.31% 22,737 38.46% 37,560 37.71% 18,292 36.65% 8072 35.96%   90,521 37.54%
Anti-hypertensive medications             < 0.001   
 No 6886 68.33% 36,049 60.98% 55,657 55.88% 26,173 52.44% 10,811 48.17%   135,576 56.22%
 Yes 3191 31.67% 23,067 39.02% 43,938 44.12% 23,742 47.56% 11,634 51.83%   105,572 43.78%
  1. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation