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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in the comparison cohorts

From: Cardiovascular risks and bleeding with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant versus warfarin in patients with type 2 diabetes: a tapered matching cohort study

  Unmatched cohorts Cohorts after coarsened exact matching
Incident NOAC users (N = 862) Incident warfarin users (N = 626) P-value for matching variables Incident NOAC users (N = 582) Incident warfarin users (N = 486) P-value for matching variables
Clinical commission group-2, n (%) 363 (42.1) 287 (45.9) 0.152 234 (44.3) 243 (50.0) 0.070
Age, years 75.8 (10.2) 73.3 (9.6) < 0.0001 75.4 (10.2) 74.2 (9.1) 0.066
Male Gender, n (%) 515 (59.7) 384 (61.3) 0.534 350 (66.3) 305 (62.8) 0.240
Duration of diabetes, years 5.5 (4.6) 6.4 (5.3) 0.001 6.1 (5.2) 5.2 (4.5) 0.004
Body mass index, kg/m2 31.9 (6.7) 32.5 (6.9) 0.090 31.9 (6.6) 32.1 (6.8) 0.647
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 133 (13) 132 (13) 0.447 132 (13.1) 132 (12.4) 0.936
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.2 (1.1) 4.2 (1.0) 0.825 4.1 (1.0) 4.2 (1.0) 0.329
HbA1c, mmol/mol/% 54.7 (14.7) /7.2 (3.5) 58.0 (15.4)/7.5 (3.6) 0.702 57.3 (14.3)/7.4 (3.5) 56.8 (14.5)/7.3 (3.5) 0.606
Estimated glomerular filtration rate, mL/min/1.73m2 85 (82 to 90) 83 (78 to 90) 0.125 86 (83 to 90) 84 (79 to 90) 0.325
No of prior CVD or bleeding comorbiditiesa
 0 28 (3.3) 45 (7.2) < 0.0001 19 (3.6) 34 (7.0) 0.824
 1 135 (15.7) 102 (16.3) 92 (17.4) 79 (16.3)
 2 235 (27.3) 190 (30.4) 153 (29.0) 153 (31.5)
 3 237 (27.5) 146 (23.3) 150 (28.4) 131 (27.0)
 4 140 (16.2) 91 (14.5) 100 (18.9) 75 (15.4)
 5 64 (7.4) 35 (15.6) 11 (2.1) 6 (1.2)
 6 19 (2.2) 14 (2.2) 3 (0.6) 7 (1.4)
 7 3 (0.4) 3 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2)
 8 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
No of prescriptions potentially correlating with bleeding/CVDb
 0 119 (13.8) 87 (13.9) 0.097 75 (14.2) 68 (14.0) 0.535
 1 189 (21.9) 176 (28.1) 135 (25.6) 149 (30.7)
 2 163 (18.9) 132 (21.1) 103 (19.5) 108 (22.2)
 3 197 (22.9) 131 (20.9) 118 (22.4) 103 (21.2)
 4 148 (17.2) 78 (12.5) 88 (16.7) 52 (10.7)
 5 45 (5.2) 21 (3.4) 9 (1.7) 5 (1.0)
 6 1 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2)
No of anti-diabetes agents/insulinc
 Diet 300 (34.8) 197 (31.5) 0.468 195 (36.9) 168 (34.6) 0.183
 1 313 (36.3) 246 (29.3) 198 (37.5) 207 (42.6)
 2 164 (19.0) 114 (18.2) 101 (19.1) 89 (18.3)
 3 73 (8.5) 56 (9.0) 29 (5.5) 17 (3.5)
 4 12 (1.4) 12 (1.9) 5 (1.0) 5 (1.0)
 5 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
No of anti-hypertensive agentsd
 0 107 (12.4) 96 (15.3) 0.086 60 (11.4) 71 (14.6) 0.078
 1 199 (23.1) 112 (17.9) 130 (24.6) 89 (18.3)
 2 248 (28.8) 201 (32.1) 154 (29.2) 164 (33.7)
 3 219 (25.4) 163 (26.0) 126 (23.9) 120 (24.7)
 4 75 (8.7) 47 (7.5) 50 (9.5) 36 (7.4)
 5 14 (1.6) 7 (1.1) 8 (1.5) 6 (1.2)
  1. CVD indicates cardiovascular diseases
  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was presented as median (interquartile range)
  3. a Prior CVD or bleeding comorbidities include congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, valvular heart disease, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, bleeding, and gastrointestinal bleeding
  4. b Prescriptions potentially correlating with bleeding/CVD include proton pump inhibitors for gastrointestinal disease, antiplatelet, antidepressant, corticosteroids, and statins
  5. c Anti-diabetes agents/insulin includes metformin, sulfonylurea, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, sodium-glucose contransporter-2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1, and alpha glucosidase inhibitor
  6. d Anti-hypertensive treatment includes diuretics, alpha-blocker, calcium channel blocker, ARB/ACE