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Table 2 Cox regression analysis for all-cause mortality*

From: Use of the ankle-brachial index combined with the percentage of mean arterial pressure at the ankle to improve prediction of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an observational study

  Crude Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
Normal ABI and normal  %MAP# 1.000    1.000    1.000    1.000   
Normal ABI but high  %MAP 2.510 (1.805, 3.490) < 0.001 2.231 (1.597, 3.116) < 0.001 2.018 (1.443, 2.823) < 0.001 1.579 (1.120, 2.226) 0.009
Low ABI but normal  %MAP 2.390 (1.298, 4.400) 0.005 2.171 (1.178, 4.000) 0.013 1.965 (1.063, 3.631) 0.031 1.730 (0.932, 3.209) 0.082
Low ABI and high  %MAP 4.167 (2.997, 5.795) < 0.001 3.076 (2.199, 4.305) < 0.001 2.539 (1.801, 3.578) < 0.001 2.045 (1.420, 2.945) < 0.001
  1. * The cumulative mortality rate was 4.8% in a total of 5569 enrolled patients
  2. #Low ABI was defined as an ABI value ≤ 0.90 and normal ABI > 0.90; high  %MAP was defined as  %MAP > 45% and normal  %MAP ≤ 45%
  3. %MAP percentage of mean arterial pressure, ABI ankle-brachial index, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  4. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, smoking, cardiovascular disease, and body mass index; Model 3: adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, smoking, cardiovascular disease, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive drugs, use of insulin, use of statins, and use of antiplatelet agents