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Table 1 Baseline features of hospitalized Covid-19 patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes, and patients experiencing the primary composite outcome (admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation or death), compared with those discharged alive not experiencing an event

From: Cardiometabolic multimorbidity is associated with a worse Covid-19 prognosis than individual cardiometabolic risk factors: a multicentre retrospective study (CoViDiab II)

  Diabetes   Primary composite outcome  
No
n = 273
Yes
n = 81
p No
n = 149
Yes
n = 128
p
Age ≥ 70, n (%) 90 (33.0) 52 (64.2)  < 0.001 42 (28.2) 65 (50.8)  < 0.001
Male sex, n (%) 165 (60.2) 50 (61.7) 0.81 84 (56.4) 86 (67.2) 0.065
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 26.1 [23.9–28.6]* 27.0 [24.8–29.4]** 0.20 25.2 [23.4–27.7]*** 27.1 [25.0–29.4]**** 0.002
Diabetes, n (%) N/A N/A N/A 23 (15.4) 40 (31.2) 0.002
Diabetes therapy, n (%) N/A N/A N/A    
 Diet alone, n (%)     1 (4.8) 4 (10.8) 0.64
 EuGla, n (%)     9 (42.9) 17 (45.9) 0.82
 OHA (alone or in combination with EuGlA), n (%)     4 (19.0) 3 (8.1) 0.22
 Basal insulin (alone or in combination with EuGlA or OHA), n (%)     0 (0.0) 4 (10.8) 0.29
 MDI, n (%)     7 (33.3) 9 (24.3) 0.46
Hypertension, n (%) 126 (46.1) 54 (66.7) 0.001 62 (41.6) 86 (67.2)  < 0.001
Drugs acting on RAAS
 ACEi, n (%) − 36 (13.2) − 19 (23.5) 0.011 24 (16.1) 23 (18.0) 0.55
 ARBs, n (%) − 40 (14.7) − 14 (17.3) 0.42 20 (13.4) 19 (14.8) 0.60
Dyslipidaemia, n (%) 49 (18.0) 29 (37.2)  < 0.001 28 (18.9) 37 (29.1) 0.047
Smoking ^ ^^   ^^^ ^^^^  
 Never, n (%) 203 (83.2) 55 (75.3) 0.13 100 (77.5) 92 (80.7) 0.54
 Ever, n (%) 41 (16.8) 18 (24.6) 29 (22.9) 22 (19.3)
   Ex, n (%) 31 (12.7) 17 (23.3) 0.055# 19 (14.7) 21 (18.4) 0.032#
   Current, n (%) 10 (4.1) 1 (1.4) 10 (7.8) 1 (0.9)
Prior CV event, n (%) 21 (7.7) 13 (16.0) 0.026 14 (9.5) 16 (12.5) 0.42
Prior heart failure, n (%) 11 (4.1) 10 (12.8) 0.005 6 (4.1) 13 (10.6) 0.038
Prior malignancy, n (%) 14 (5.2) 6 (7.7) 0.40 6 (4.0) 10 (7.9) 0.17
Prior COPD, n (%) 27 (10.0) 17 (21.2) 0.008 11 (7.4) 28 (21.9) 0.001
Antiviral therapy, n (%) 103 (37.7) 29 (35.8) 0.77 60 (40.3) 60 (46.9) 0.27
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 102 [93–118] 151 [117–215]  < 0.001 101 [93–119] 119 [99–160]  < 0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.81 [0.70–1.04] 1.03 [0.82–1.50]  < 0.001 0.83 [0.70–1.03] 0.97 [0.72–1.26] 0.016
ESR (mm/hr) 42.5 [23.5–59] 73.5 [43–86] 0.075 38 [24–65] 78 [54–79] 0.19
CRP (mg/L) 2.71 [0.82–7.52] 5.06 [1.70–10.58] 0.014 1.84 [0.59–4.17] 6.37 [2.09–13.52]  < 0.001
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 272.5 [216–344] 289 [218–386] 0.31 254 [210–314] 313 [246–399]  < 0.001
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 470.5 [383.5–800] 556 [467–752] 0.028 479 [372–800] 524 [426–800] 0.064
D-dimer (mg/L) 450 [1.57–891] 432 [4.09–1440] 0.31 357 [0.89–780] 598 [214–1250] 0.006
White blood cell count (× 109/L) 5.90 [4.38–8.48] 6.79 [5.46–8.80] 0.045 5.73 [4.08–7.20] 7.04 [5.11–9.67]  < 0.001
Lymphocytes (× 109/L) 1.11 [0.73–1.66] 1.07 [0.75–1.48] 0.38 1.20 [0.81–1.65] 0.95 [0.65–1.52] 0.015
Neutrophil count (× 109/L) 3.97 [2.67–6.0] 4.84 [0.75–1.48] 0.017 3.78 [2.62–5.12] 5.25 [3.65–7.7]  < 0.001
Blood gas analysis
 pH 7.46 [7.42–7.49] 7.46 [7.42–7.48] 0.45 7.45 [7.43–7.48] 7.46 [7.41–7.50] 0.95
 PaO2/FIO2 ratio 367 [281–438] 322 [237–394] 0.012 405 [350–462] 281 [186–333]  < 0.001
 pCO2, mmHg 34.0 [31.0–37.0] 35.7 [33.0–39.0] 0.055 34.9 [31.0–37.0] 35 [31.0–38.2] 0.43
 HCO3, mmol/l 24.2 [22.2–26.0] 24.6 [22.4–27.1] 0.45 24.0 [22.4–25.5] 24.5 [22.0–28.0] 0.16
 Venous lactate, mmol/l 1.2 [0.9–2.1] 1.7 [1.2–7.0]  < 0.001 1.2 [0.8–1.8] 1.5 [1.0–8.0] 0.002
  1. Continuous variables are presented as median [25th, 75th percentile]; categorical variables are presented as number (percentage)
  2. # p-value for difference in never, ex and current mokers
  3. EuGlA, euglycemic agents (metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and/or pioglitazone); OHA, oral hypoglycaemic agents (sulfonylureas or glinides); MDI, multiple daily insulin injections; RAAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CV, cardiovascular; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ESR, erythrocytes sedimentation rate; CRP, c-reactive protein; PaO2, arterial pO2; FIO2, fraction of inspired oxygen
  4. Body mass index data were available for *120, **49, ***55 and ****95 patients
  5. Smoking data were available for ^244, ^^73, ^^^129 and ^^^^114 patients
  6. Anti-diabetes therapy data were available for 58 of the 63 patients with diabetes who completed the study