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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by allocation group

From: Metformin may adversely affect orthostatic blood pressure recovery in patients with type 2 diabetes: substudy from the placebo-controlled Copenhagen Insulin and Metformin Therapy (CIMT) trial

  Metformin + insulin (n = 183) Placebo + insulin (n = 189)
Age (years) 61.0 (8.7) 60.3 (9.1)
Male, N (%) 140 (68) 141 (68)
Body mass indexa 32.3 (4.2) 32.1 (4.2)
Smokers, N (%) 36 (18) 27 (13)
Median (IQR) alcohol consumption (units/week) 2 (0;6) 1 (0;5)
Duration of type 2 diabetes (years) 13.5 (6.2) 12.2 (6.5)
HbA1c (%) 8.6 (1.1) 8.5 (1.0)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 70 (12) 69 (11)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.2 (0.8) 2.2 (0.8)
eGFRb (mL/min) 130 (44) 126 (45)
Vitamin B12 (pmol/l) 283 (200; 369) 275 (222; 359)
Methyl malonic acid (µmol/l) 0.20 (0.15; 0.25) 0.21 (0.16; 0.27)
Diabetic complications
 Symptomatic autonomous neuropathy N (%) 33 (16) 36 (18)
 Symptomatic peripheral neuropathy N (%) 76 (37) 78 (38)
 Prior cardiovascular disease N (%)c 45 (22) 55 (27)
 Microalbuminuria N (%) 48 (24) 40 (20)
 Macroalbuminuria N (%) 12 (6) 8 (4)
 Simplex retinopathy N (%) 59 (30) 63 (31)
 Proliferative retinopathy N (%) 15 (8) 10 (5)
Medication at baseline
 RAS blockade N (%) 159 (77) 149 (72)
 Beta blocker N (%) 41 (10) 42 (10)
 Acetylsalicylic acid 103 (54.5) 109 (59.6)
 Diuretics N (%) 74 (18) 71 (17)
 Statin N (%) 170 (83) 181 (88)
  1. Values are means (SDs) unless stated otherwise. IQR interquartile range. aBody mass index is calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m)2. bCalculated by the Cockcroft Gault equation: eGFR =  ( (140-age) × weight (kg) × constant)/serum creatinine (micromol/l), constant female: 1.04, male: 1.23. CVD, cardiovascular disease; eCCr, estimated creatinine clearance; cPrior CVD was defined as one or more of the following: myocardial infarction, heart surgery, ischaemic heart disease, heart insufficiency, vascular surgery, stroke, transitory cerebral ischaemia, amputation HbA1c haemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, RAS Renin angiotensin system