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Table 2 General characteristics of all female participants by diabetic complications

From: Associations between abdominal obesity indices and diabetic complications: Chinese visceral adiposity index and neck circumference

Characteristic Diabetic complications
CVD− CVD+ P DKD− DKD+ P DR− DR+ P
N 1536 952 1453 422 1431 279
Age, year 65.15 ± 8.6 69.69 ± 7.79 < 0.001 66.71 ± 8.16 68.85 ± 8.97 < 0.001 66.72 ± 8.28 66.51 ± 7.69 0.693
Duration of diabetes, year 7 (3, 14) 10 (5, 18) < 0.001 8 (3, 15) 10 (5, 18) < 0.001 8 (3, 15) 10 (4.75, 19) < 0.001
Current smoking, % 2.6 2.2 0.687 2.6 1.9 0.477 2.5 2.5 0.999
Beyond high school education, % 49.3 38.4 < 0.001 45.8 38.0 0.005 45.6 45.3 0.948
BMI, kg/m2 24.72 ± 3.85 25.27 ± 3.77 < 0.001 24.59 ± 3.71 26.16 ± 4 < 0.001 24.79 ± 3.82 25.45 ± 3.89 0.009
WC, cm 87.81 ± 9.97 89.68 ± 9.67 < 0.001 87.6 ± 9.64 92.27 ± 10.6 < 0.001 88.12 ± 9.98 89.62 ± 10.14 0.023
NC, cm 35.9 ± 2.94 36.35 ± 3.09 < 0.001 35.9 ± 2.97 36.87 ± 2.9 < 0.001 35.93 ± 2.94 36.41 ± 3.12 0.014
HC, cm 97.55 ± 8.85 98.51 ± 7.96 0.006 97.51 ± 8.18 99.92 ± 10.1 < 0.001 97.66 ± 8.83 98.66 ± 8.37 0.071
WHR 0.9 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.07 0.001 0.9 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.08 < 0.001 0.9 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.07 0.249
LAP 47.5 (30.0, 73.0) 51.7 (31.7, 77.9) 0.004 44.3 (28.4, 66.1) 60.1 (38.5, 95.3) < 0.001 48.8 (30.7, 75.4) 48.1 (30.7, 74.1) 0.853
VAI 2.53 (1.64, 3.92) 2.64 (1.76, 4.04) 0.011 2.40 (1.58, 3.61) 3.01 (1.94, 4.79) < 0.001 2.60 (1.69, 4.04) 2.36 (1.60, 3.67) 0.053
CVAI 122.58 ± 34.66 135.87 ± 31.67 < 0.001 123.45 ± 33.45 143.5 ± 33.87 < 0.001 126.43 ± 34.09 129.66 ± 34.48 0.149
FPG, mmol/L 7.67 ± 2.46 7.78 ± 2.62 0.297 7.54 ± 2.3 8.53 ± 3.12 < 0.001 7.65 ± 2.36 8.22 ± 2.93 < 0.001
HbA1c, % 7.37 ± 1.39 7.45 ± 1.3 0.121 7.3 ± 1.28 7.84 ± 1.57 < 0.001 7.31 ± 1.25 7.68 ± 1.56 < 0.001
TC, mmol/L 5.5 ± 1.16 5.13 ± 1.26 < 0.001 5.34 ± 1.18 5.44 ± 1.31 0.141 5.37 ± 1.21 5.49 ± 1.23 0.122
TG, mmol/L 1.62 (1.14, 2.23) 1.62 (1.20, 2.29) 0.203 1.52 (1.10, 2.12) 1.85 (1.26, 2.52) < 0.001 1.63 (1.18, 2.31) 1.49 (1.13, 2.17) 0.084
HDL, mmol/L 1.31 ± 0.3 1.26 ± 0.29 < 0.001 1.32 ± 0.31 1.24 ± 0.28 < 0.001 3.29 ± 0.86 3.39 ± 0.9 0.078
LDL, mmol/L 3.39 ± 0.83 3.12 ± 0.91 < 0.001 3.27 ± 0.86 3.33 ± 0.92 0.286 1.29 ± 0.31 1.31 ± 0.29 0.382
CCA plaque, % 40.6 52.0 < 0.001 42.0 52.2 < 0.001 42.3 48.2 0.074
Ln ACR, mg/g 2.8 ± 1.12 2.94 ± 1.26 0.005 2.27 ± 0.64 4.47 ± 1.04 < 0.001 2.76 ± 1.14 3.04 ± 1.24 < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m2 95.87 ± 15.19 88.13 ± 17.66 < 0.001 94.15 ± 14.54 89.47 ± 20.51 < 0.001 92.87 ± 16.33 94.23 ± 16.1 0.200
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 144.73 ± 19.71 147.46 ± 20.19 0.001 143.34 ± 18.84 155.09 ± 20.86 < 0.001 144.98 ± 19.82 149.05 ± 19.97 0.002
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78.35 ± 10.1 76.61 ± 10.68 < 0.001 76.76 ± 10.13 79.58 ± 11 < 0.001 77.35 ± 10.43 77.5 ± 9.27 0.819
  1. The data are summarized as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables or as a numerical proportion for categorical variables
  2. CVD cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, DR diabetic retinopathy, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, CCA common carotid artery, Ln ACR log-transformed albumin to creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, NC neck circumference, HC hip circumference, WC waist circumference, VAI visceral adiposity index, LAP lipid accumulation product, CVAI Chinese visceral adiposity index, WHR waist-to-hip ratio