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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study participants according to Lp(a) categories

From: Lipoprotein (a) predicts recurrent worse outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with prior cardiovascular events: a prospective, observational cohort study

Variables All patients Lp (a) categories (mg/dL) p value
(n = 2284) < 10 10 ~ 30 ≥30
  (n = 846) (n = 769) (n = 669)
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years 58.54 ± 10.47 57.99 ± 10.66 58.74 ± 10.61 59.00 ± 10.06 0.143
 Male, n (%) 1674 (73.3) 663 (78.4) 550 (71.5) 461 (68.9) <0.001
 Hypertension, n (%) 1589 (69.6) 607 (71.8) 529 (68.8) 453 (67.8) 0.199
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 1817 (79.6) 677 (80.1) 612 (79.7) 528 (79.0) 0.885
 Current smokers, n (%) 1312 (57.4) 507 (59.9) 445 (57.9) 360 (53.8) 0.052
 Family history of CAD, n (%) 312 (13.7) 103 (12.2) 109 (14.2) 100 (14.9) 0.281
 Body mass index, kg/m2 26.35 ± 3.15 26.64 ± 3.12 26.18 ± 3.27 26.19 ± 3.02 0.005
 SBP, mmHg 128 ± 17 128 ± 17 128 ± 18 127 ± 16 0.288
 DBP, mmHg 78 ± 16 78 ± 11 78 ± 22 77 ± 11 0.133
 Heart rate, bpm 71 ± 10 72 ± 10 71 ± 10 71 ± 11 0.163
Laboratory and clinical parameters
 FBG, mmol/L 7.24 ± 2.31 7.33 ± 2.35 7.23 ± 2.34 7.12 ± 2.24 0.220
 HbA1c, % 7.39 ± 1.26 7.35 ± 1.22 7.44 ± 1.29 7.38 ± 1.28 0.311
 TC, mmol/L 4.08 ± 1.18 3.97 ± 1.21 4.02 ± 1.10 4.29 ± 1.20 < 0.001
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.01 ± 0.27 1.00 ± 0.27 1.01 ± 0.26 1.03 ± 0.28 0.054
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.45 ± 0.97 2.28 ± 0.92 2.42 ± 0.90 2.69 ± 1.06 < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.56 (1.17–2.20) 1.65 (1.19–2.42) 1.54 (1.16–2.14) 1.48 (1.13–2.09) < 0.001
 Lp (a), mg/dL 15.01 (6.60–34.76) 5.22 (3.32–7.33) 17.19 (13.11–22.54) 52.94 (38.85–79.41) < 0.001
 ApoAI, g/L 1.31 ± 0.30 1.32 ± 0.35 1.29 ± 0.26 1.31 ± 0.29 0.179
 ApoB, g/L 0.92 ± 0.30 0.87 ± 0.29 0.90 ± 0.28 0.99 ± 0.31 < 0.001
Diseased vessels, n (%)      0.016
 One vessel 430 (18.8) 174 (20.6) 151 (19.6) 105 (15.7)  
 Two vessels 677 (29.6) 273 (32.3) 218 (28.4) 186 (27.8)  
 Multi-vessels 1138 (49.8) 382 (45.1) 391 (50.8) 365 (54.5)  
 LVEF, % 62.3 ± 8.7 62.3 ± 8.8 62.3 ± 9.1 62.2 ± 8.2 0.971
Medications
 Aspirin, n (%) 2227 (97.5) 827 (97.7) 753 (97.8) 647 (96.8) 0.418
 P2Y12 inhibitor, n (%) 2040 (89.3) 750 (88.6) 703 (91.4) 587 (87.8) 0.070
 Statins, n (%) 2133 (93.4) 783 (92.7) 730 (94.9) 620 (92.7) 0.150
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 1215 (53.2) 453 (53.6) 402 (52.3) 360 (53.8) 0.825
 β-blockers, n (%) 1886 (82.6) 711 (84.0) 617 (80.2) 558 (83.4) 0.117
 CCB, n (%) 875 (38.3) 335 (39.6) 295 (38.3) 245 (36.7) 0.513
Anti-diabetes treatment      0.757
 Oral drugs 1311 (57.4) 488 (57.7) 435 (56.6) 388 (58.0)  
 Insulin 726 (31.8) 259 (30.6) 254 (33.0) 213 (31.9)  
  1. Continuous values are summarized as mean ± SD, median (Q1–Q3) and categorical variables as n (%)
  2. Lp(a) lipoprotein(a), CAD coronary artery disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, ApoAI apolipoprotein AI, ApoB apolipoprotein B, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, CCB calcium channel blockers