Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of overall study patients and those stratified by the status of microvascular disease occurrence during the study follow-up

From: Comparative predictive ability of visit-to-visit HbA1c variability measures for microvascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes

Variablea All (n = 1705) Without MVD (n = 533) With MVD (n = 1172)
n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD
Males (%)b 979 (57.42) 321 (60.23) 658 (56.14)
Age at index dateb 53.14 (12.23) 49.98 (13.44) 54.57 (11.36)
Diabetes durationc 6.45 (3.77) 5.75 (3.86) 6.77 (3.69)
Follow-up (years) 1.99 (2.09) 4.01 (1.97) 1.07 (1.37)
Smoking status 64 (3.75) 20 (3.75) 44 (3.75)
Biomarkerb
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.88 (4.12) 25.68 (4.07) 25.96 (4.14)
 Smoking status 64 (3.75) 20 (3.75) 44 (3.75)
 Mean HDL (mg/dL) 50.31 (13.45) 51.25 (13.81) 49.90 (13.27)
 Mean LDL (mg/dL) 105.94 (25.61) 108.35 (25.62) 104.93 (25.56)
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.44 (15.61) 130.10 (16.06) 134.60 (15.32)
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 171.50 (30.79) 173.57 (31.30) 170.60 (30.53)
 ACR (mg/g) 234.06 (768.93) 49.34 (211.20) 306.27 (886.91)
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.97 (1.86) 13.55 (1.68) 12.77 (1.87)
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 74.08 (19.56) 82.18 (10.57) 70.59 (21.42)
 WBC (103/μL) 7.50 (2.39) 7.30 (2.67) 7.57 (2.28)
Comorbidity/complicationd
 Previous CVD events (%) 380 (22.29) 125 (23.45) 255 (21.76)
 Previous MVD events (%) 1348 (79.06) 343 (64.35) 1005 (85.75)
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 50 (2.93) 7 (1.31) 43 (3.67)
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 96 (5.63) 21 (3.94) 75 (6.40)
 History of amputation (%) 3 (0.18) 2 (0.38) 1 (0.09)
Diabetes and CVD-related medication
 Metformin (%) 1148 (67.33) 359 (67.35) 789 (67.32)
 Sulfonylurea (%) 1106 (64.87) 311 (58.35) 795 (67.83)
 Meglitinide (%) 113 (6.63) 23 (4.32) 90 (7.68)
 Acarbose (%) 172 (10.09) 39 (7.32) 133 (11.35)
 TZD (%) 191 (11.20) 46 (8.63) 145 (12.37)
 DPP-4i (%) 336 (19.71) 72 (13.51) 264 (22.53)
 Insulin (%) 191 (11.20) 59 (11.06) 132 (11.26)
 Anticoagulants (%) 21 (1.23) 8 (1.50) 13 (1.11)
 Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (%) 817 (47.92) 179 (33.58) 638 (54.44)
HbA1c variability and mean measureb
 HbA1c-SD (%) 0.84 (0.73) 0.82 (0.65) 0.85 (0.75)
 HbA1c-SD (mmol/mol) 9.20 (8.00) 9.00 (7.10) 9.30 (8.20)
 HbA1c-CV 0.11 (0.08) 0.10 (0.07) 0.11 (0.08)
 HSV 40.63 (32.78) 40.56 (33.80) 40.66 (32.39)
 HbA1c-meanoverall (%) 7.73 (1.30) 7.72 (1.40) 7.73 (1.26)
 HbA1c-meanoverall (mmol/mol) 61 (14.20) 61 (15.30) 61 (13.80)
 HbA1c-meanyearly (%)
  1st year 7.79 (1.40) 7.75 (1.48) 7.80 (1.37)
  2nd year 7.62 (1.35) 7.52 (1.32) 7.66 (1.35)
  3rd year 7.62 (1.44) 7.46 (1.27) 7.68 (1.50)
  4th year 7.54 (1.29) 7.43 (1.14) 7.58 (1.33)
  5th year 7.61 (1.28) 7.50 (1.20) 7.65 (1.31)
 HbA1c-meanyearly (mmol/mol)
  1st year 62 (15.30) 61 (16.20) 62 (15.00)
  2nd year 60 (14.80) 59 (14.40) 60 (14.80)
  3rd year 60 (15.70) 58 (13.90) 60 (16.40)
  4th year 59 (14.10) 58 (12.50) 59 (14.50)
  5th year 60 (14.00) 58 (13.10) 60 (14.30)
 HbA1c-index (%) 8.03 (1.83) 8.02 (1.97) 8.03 (1.77)
 HbA1c-index (mmol/mol) 64 (20.00) 64 (21.50) 64 (19.30)
  1. MVD microvascular disease, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, BP blood pressure, ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, WBC white blood cell; CVD, cardiovascular disease; TZD, thiazolidinedione; DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c-SD, the standard deviation of HbA1c; HbA1c-CV, the coefficient of variation of HbA1c; HSV, HbA1c variability score; HbA1c-meanoverall, the mean of HbA1c values from the index date until the end of follow-up, including the index date; HbA1c-meanyearly, the annual averages of HbA1c values from each year during follow-up, including the index date; HbA1c-index, the value of the first HbA1c examination at National Cheng Kung University Hospital
  2. aAll variables were measured in the year prior to the index date (not including the index date), except for age, gender, biomarkers, and HbA1c measurements
  3. bAge, gender, and HbA1c-index were determined at the index date whereas HbA1c-SD, HbA1c-CV, HSV, HbA1c-meanoverall, HbA1c-meanyearly, and other laboratory data were estimated during follow-up
  4. cDiabetes duration was measured as the time from the first date of type 2 diabetes diagnosis to the index date, which was the first date of HbA1c examination taken at National Cheng Kung University Hospital
  5. dThere were no patients with the history of blindness, and thus the descriptive result for this variable was not presented