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Table 4 Effects of tofogliflozin on body mass index, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and blood pressure

From: Tofogliflozin does not delay progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative study

Parameters Tofogliflozin group Conventional group P value
Body Mass Index at baseline (kg/m2) 27.0 ± 5.8 (n = 168) 27.0 ± 4.6 (n = 169) 0.93
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 0.7 ± 1.0 (n = 163)§ 0.0 ± 1.2 (n = 164) < 0.001
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.8 ± 1.3 (n = 160)§ − 0.1 ± 1.4 (n = 159) < 0.001
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 0.8 ± 1.5 (n = 154)§ 0.0 ± 1.5 (n = 157) < 0.001
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 1.0 ± 1.4 (n = 154)§ − 0.2 ± 1.8 (n = 154) < 0.001
Waist circumference at baseline (cm) 93.0 ± 12.7 (n = 149) 93.7 ± 11.7 (n = 154) 0.60
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 2.0 ± 6.0 (n = 128)§ 1.0 ± 4.3 (n = 127)# < 0.001
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.9 ± 6.1 (n = 127) 1.4 ± 4.7 (n = 135)# < 0.001
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 1.3 ± 6.5 (n = 117)* 1.4 ± 4.3 (n = 124)§ < 0.001
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 1.2 ± 6.0 (n = 124)* 1.5 ± 4.3 (n = 125)§ < 0.001
HbA1c at baseline (%) 7.4 ± 0.7 (n = 169) 7.3 ± 0.7 (n = 170) 0.23
HbA1c at baseline (mmol/mol) 57.5 ± 8.0 (n = 169) 56.5 ± 7.8 (n = 169) 0.23
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 0.4 ± 0.6 (n = 165)§ 0.0 ± 0.5 (n = 165) < 0.001
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.3 ± 0.7 (n = 161)§ 0.0 ± 0.6 (n = 162) < 0.001
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 0.3 ± 0.8 (n = 154)§ 0.0 ± 0.7 (n = 159) < 0.001
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 0.3 ± 0.8 (n = 156)§ 0.1 ± 0.7 (n = 153) < 0.001
Fasting blood glucose at baseline (mmol/l) 7.8 ± 1.7 (n = 167) 7.8 ± 1.8 (n = 168) 0.91
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 0.9 ± 1.6 (n = 155)§ 0.2 ± 2.1 (n = 152) < 0.001
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.8 ± 1.7 (n = 150)§ − 0.1 ± 1.8 (n = 154) < 0.001
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 0.5 ± 1.7 (n = 145)§ 0.1 ± 1.9 (n = 146) 0.007
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 0.7 ± 1.9 (n = 148)§ 0.1 ± 1.8 (n = 149) < 0.001
C-peptide at baseline (ng/ml) 1.91 ± 1.16 (n = 166) 2.04 ± 1.24 (n = 168) 0.34
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.26 ± 0.78 (n = 149)§ − 0.20 ± 1.11 (n = 156)* 0.61
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 0.16 ± 0.82 (n = 145)* − 0.12 ± 1.06 (n = 149) 0.75
Total cholesterol at baseline (mmol/l) 4.96 ± 0.74 (n = 165) 4.93 ± 0.81 (n = 163) 0.72
 Week 26 (change from baseline) 0.09 ± 0.55 (n = 156)* − 0.03 ± 0.54 (n = 150) 0.07
 Week 52 (change from baseline) 0.07 ± 0.59 (n = 157) − 0.04 ± 0.57 (n = 156) 0.07
 Week 78 (change from baseline) 0.09 ± 0.57 (n = 146) − 0.05 ± 0.65 (n = 144) 0.05
 Week 104 (change from baseline) 0.10 ± 0.69 (n = 151) − 0.05 ± 0.67 (n = 147) 0.06
LDL cholesterol at baseline (mmol/l) 2.88 ± 0.69 (n = 168) 2.89 ± 0.66 (n = 169) 0.87
 Week 26 (change from baseline) 0.03 ± 0.52 (n = 162) − 0.02 ± 0.51 (n = 162) 0.47
 Week 52 (change from baseline) 0.01 ± 0.50 (n = 159) − 0.03 ± 0.51 (n = 162) 0.49
 Week 78 (change from baseline) 0.04 ± 0.50 (n = 153) − 0.05 ± 0.59 (n = 157) 0.14
 Week 104 (change from baseline) 0.01 ± 0.62 (n = 154) − 0.07 ± 0.57 (n = 153) 0.25
HDL cholesterol at baseline (mmol/l) 1.42 ± 0.36 (n = 169) 1.37 ± 0.31 (n = 170) 0.18
 Week 26 (change from baseline) 0.07 ± 0.18 (n = 163)§ 0.00 ± 0.18 (n = 162) < 0.001
 Week 52 (change from baseline) 0.06 ± 0.16 (n = 161)§ 0.01 ± 0.18 (n = 162) 0.009
 Week 78 (change from baseline) 0.08 ± 0.22 (n = 154)§ 0.03 ± 0.20 (n = 159) 0.019
 Week 104 (change from baseline) 0.08 ± 0.23 (n = 156)§ 0.04 ± 0.20 (n = 154)* 0.08
Triglyceride at baseline (mmol/l) 1.20 [0.93, 1.80] (n = 167) 1.45 [1.01, 1.88] (n = 168) 0.06
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 0.04 [− 0.34, 0.24] (n = 152) 0.03 [− 0.26, 0.36] (n = 150) 0.21
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 0.03 [− 0.25, 0.23] (n = 149) − 0.03 [− 0.37, 0.20] (n = 154)* 0.40
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 0.01 [− 0.30, 0.23] (n = 145) − 0.01 [− 0.34, 0.29] (n = 145) 0.82
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 0.05 [− 0.36, 0.25] (n = 147) − 0.03 [− 0.35, 0.30] (n = 148) 0.95
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.0 ± 14.5 (n = 165) 134.5 ± 17.4 (n = 165) 0.41
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 4.5 ± 13.9 (n = 160)§ − 0.7 ± 15.3 (n = 159) 0.021
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 6.0 ± 13.0 (n = 157)§ − 2.7 ± 17.4 (n = 157) 0.06
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 5.6 ± 15.4 (n = 151)§ − 1.6 ± 18.3 (n = 152) 0.040
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 5.3 ± 16.3 (n = 150)§ 0.5 ± 18.0 (n = 148) 0.004
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.7 ± 10.0 (n = 165) 79.1 ± 10.9 (n = 165) 0.22
 Week 26 (change from baseline) − 1.7 ± 8.9 (n = 160)* 0.1 ± 9.0 (n = 159) 0.08
 Week 52 (change from baseline) − 3.2 ± 9.3 (n = 157)§ − 0.8 ± 10.1 (n = 157) 0.028
 Week 78 (change from baseline) − 2.7 ± 9.5 (n = 151)§ − 1.1 ± 9.8 (n = 152) 0.15
 Week 104 (change from baseline) − 3.2 ± 10.1 (n = 150)§ − 1.0 ± 10.0 (n = 148) 0.05
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (the 25th and 75th percentiles) values. Differences in parameters between groups at baseline were analyzed using Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Differences in parameters from baseline to week 52 and 104 within each group were analyzed by one-sample t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Differences in parameters from baseline to week 52 and 104 between groups were analyzed using Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. *P < 0.05, #P < 0.01, §P < 0.001