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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Augmented glycaemic gap is a marker for an increased risk of post-infarct left ventricular systolic dysfunction

Clinical information

Total (274)

Non-DM, n = 167

p-value

DM, n = 107

p-value

Group 1 (84)

Group 2 (83)

Group 3 (54)

Group 4 (53)

Age (years)

57.78 ± 11.42

55.18 ± 12.49

58.19 ± 9.95

0.087

58.54 ± 10.60

60.49 ± 12.08

0.376

Male

236 (86.1%)

77 (91.7%)

70 (84.3%)

0.160

44 (81.5%)

45 (84.9%)

0.797

BMI (kg/m2)

25.29 ± 2.62

25.34 ± 2.20

25.22 ± 2.84

0.754

25.51 ± 2.58

25.10 ± 2.94

0.441

Smoker

180 (65.7%)

59 (70.2%)

53 (63.9%)

0.413

33 (61.1%)

35 (66.0%)

0.689

DM

107 (39.1%)

54 (100.0%)

53 (100.0%)

1.000

Hypertension

148 (54.0%)

48 (57.1%)

40 (48.2%)

0.280

29 (53.7%)

31 (58.5%)

0.698

Killip classification

   

0.245

  

0.309

 Class I

255 (93.1%)

75 (89.3%)

80 (96.4%)

 

52 (96.3%)

48 (90.6%)

 

 Class II

13 (4.7%)

6 (7.1%)

2 (2.4%)

 

2 (3.7%)

3 (5.7%)

 

 Class III

2 (0.7%)

1 (1.2%)

1 (1.2%)

 

 

 Class IV

4 (1.5%)

2 (2.4%)

0

 

0

2 (3.8%)

 

Laboratory examination

       

 Uric acid (μmol/L)

359.70 ± 86.43

377.26 ± 91.46

356.86 ± 79.79

0.126

338.67 ± 95.03

357.74 ± 75.17

0.252

 Homocysteine (μmol/L)

12.50 (9.38, 17.43)

14.25 (10.00, 23.35)

12.90 (9.30, 18.10)

0.133

11.05 (9.18, 15.25)

12.30 (9.15, 16.60)

0.413

 eGFR (mmol/L)

99.56 (91.58, 107.78)

99.44 ± 15.01

98.19 ± 13.19

0.571

99.70 ± 14.06

94.18 ± 17.80

0.077

 Tg (mmol/L)

1.45 (1.01, 2.05)

1.52 (1.06, 2.03)

1.29 (0.78, 1.70)

0.016

1.76 ± 0.93

2.48 ± 2.08

0.022

 LDL-C (mmol/L)

3.14 ± 0.98

3.26 ± 1.05

3.19 ± 0.93

0.555

2.95 ± 0.83

3.07 ± 1.08

0.517

 HDL-C (mmol/L)

1.05 (0.88, 1.20)

1.07 ± 0.25

1.13 ± 0.28

0.156

0.98 ± 0.21

1.06 ± 0.31

0.094

 Peak cTnI (ng/mL)

30.80 (12.40, 68.52)

22.35 (10.20, 48.77)

40.97 (14.26, 75.00)

0.019

33.38 ± 30.59

47.47 ± 31.88

0.022

 Peak hs-CRP (mg/L)

4.75 (2.27, 10.09)

4.72 (2.50, 7.58)

4.93 (1.37, 11.05)

0.804

4.53 (2.25, 7.98)

5.29 (2.86, 15.36)

0.323

 ABG (mmol/L)

8.35 (7.02, 10.84)

6.59 ± 0.64

8.66 ± 1.47

< 0.001

10.03 ± 2.49

13.88 ± 2.95

<0.001

 HBA1C (%)

6.00 (5.58, 6.90)

5.71 ± 0.35

5.62 ± 0.40

0.139

7.64 ± 1.56

7.48 ± 1.31

0.556

Pre-hospital medications

 Insulin

11 (4.0%)

 

4 (7.4%)

7 (13.2%)

0.359

 DPP-4 inhibitors

22 (8.9%)

 

9 (16.7%)

13 (24.5%)

0.347

 Other hypoglycemic agents

62 (22.7%)

 

34 (63.0%)

28 (52.8%)

0.331

Medications at discharge

 Aspirin

274 (100.0%)

84 (100.0%)

83 (100.0%)

1.000

54 (100.0%)

53 (100.0%)

1.000

 Clopidogrel/ticagrelor

274 (100.0%)

84 (100.0%)

83 (100.0%)

1.000

54 (100.0%)

53 (100.0%)

1.000

 Statin

270 (98.5%)

84 (100.0%)

80 (96.4%)

0.121

54 (100.0%)

52 (98.1%)

0.495

 Beta-blockers

215 (78.5%)

68 (81.0%)

61 (73.5%)

0.273

45 (83.3%)

41 (77.4%)

0.474

 ACEI/ARB

175 (63.9%)

52 (61.9%)

48 (57.8%)

0.637

38 (70.4%)

37 (69.8%)

1.000

  1. Non-DM and DM patients were further divided into subgroups according to median value of glycemic gap (Group 1: glycemic gap ≤ 0.995 mmol/L; Group 2: glycemic gap > 0.995 mmol/L; Group 3: glycemic gap ≤ 2.427 mmol/L; Group 4: glycemic gap > 2.427 mmol/L)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, Tg triglycerides, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cTnI cardiac troponin I, hs-CRP hypersensitive C-reactive protein, ABG admission blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, HBA1C glycated hemoglobin, DPP-4 inhibitors dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker