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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Augmented glycaemic gap is a marker for an increased risk of post-infarct left ventricular systolic dysfunction

Clinical information Total (274) Non-DM, n = 167 p-value DM, n = 107 p-value
Group 1 (84) Group 2 (83) Group 3 (54) Group 4 (53)
Age (years) 57.78 ± 11.42 55.18 ± 12.49 58.19 ± 9.95 0.087 58.54 ± 10.60 60.49 ± 12.08 0.376
Male 236 (86.1%) 77 (91.7%) 70 (84.3%) 0.160 44 (81.5%) 45 (84.9%) 0.797
BMI (kg/m2) 25.29 ± 2.62 25.34 ± 2.20 25.22 ± 2.84 0.754 25.51 ± 2.58 25.10 ± 2.94 0.441
Smoker 180 (65.7%) 59 (70.2%) 53 (63.9%) 0.413 33 (61.1%) 35 (66.0%) 0.689
DM 107 (39.1%) 54 (100.0%) 53 (100.0%) 1.000
Hypertension 148 (54.0%) 48 (57.1%) 40 (48.2%) 0.280 29 (53.7%) 31 (58.5%) 0.698
Killip classification     0.245    0.309
 Class I 255 (93.1%) 75 (89.3%) 80 (96.4%)   52 (96.3%) 48 (90.6%)  
 Class II 13 (4.7%) 6 (7.1%) 2 (2.4%)   2 (3.7%) 3 (5.7%)  
 Class III 2 (0.7%) 1 (1.2%) 1 (1.2%)   
 Class IV 4 (1.5%) 2 (2.4%) 0   0 2 (3.8%)  
Laboratory examination        
 Uric acid (μmol/L) 359.70 ± 86.43 377.26 ± 91.46 356.86 ± 79.79 0.126 338.67 ± 95.03 357.74 ± 75.17 0.252
 Homocysteine (μmol/L) 12.50 (9.38, 17.43) 14.25 (10.00, 23.35) 12.90 (9.30, 18.10) 0.133 11.05 (9.18, 15.25) 12.30 (9.15, 16.60) 0.413
 eGFR (mmol/L) 99.56 (91.58, 107.78) 99.44 ± 15.01 98.19 ± 13.19 0.571 99.70 ± 14.06 94.18 ± 17.80 0.077
 Tg (mmol/L) 1.45 (1.01, 2.05) 1.52 (1.06, 2.03) 1.29 (0.78, 1.70) 0.016 1.76 ± 0.93 2.48 ± 2.08 0.022
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.14 ± 0.98 3.26 ± 1.05 3.19 ± 0.93 0.555 2.95 ± 0.83 3.07 ± 1.08 0.517
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.05 (0.88, 1.20) 1.07 ± 0.25 1.13 ± 0.28 0.156 0.98 ± 0.21 1.06 ± 0.31 0.094
 Peak cTnI (ng/mL) 30.80 (12.40, 68.52) 22.35 (10.20, 48.77) 40.97 (14.26, 75.00) 0.019 33.38 ± 30.59 47.47 ± 31.88 0.022
 Peak hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.75 (2.27, 10.09) 4.72 (2.50, 7.58) 4.93 (1.37, 11.05) 0.804 4.53 (2.25, 7.98) 5.29 (2.86, 15.36) 0.323
 ABG (mmol/L) 8.35 (7.02, 10.84) 6.59 ± 0.64 8.66 ± 1.47 < 0.001 10.03 ± 2.49 13.88 ± 2.95 <0.001
 HBA1C (%) 6.00 (5.58, 6.90) 5.71 ± 0.35 5.62 ± 0.40 0.139 7.64 ± 1.56 7.48 ± 1.31 0.556
Pre-hospital medications
 Insulin 11 (4.0%)   4 (7.4%) 7 (13.2%) 0.359
 DPP-4 inhibitors 22 (8.9%)   9 (16.7%) 13 (24.5%) 0.347
 Other hypoglycemic agents 62 (22.7%)   34 (63.0%) 28 (52.8%) 0.331
Medications at discharge
 Aspirin 274 (100.0%) 84 (100.0%) 83 (100.0%) 1.000 54 (100.0%) 53 (100.0%) 1.000
 Clopidogrel/ticagrelor 274 (100.0%) 84 (100.0%) 83 (100.0%) 1.000 54 (100.0%) 53 (100.0%) 1.000
 Statin 270 (98.5%) 84 (100.0%) 80 (96.4%) 0.121 54 (100.0%) 52 (98.1%) 0.495
 Beta-blockers 215 (78.5%) 68 (81.0%) 61 (73.5%) 0.273 45 (83.3%) 41 (77.4%) 0.474
 ACEI/ARB 175 (63.9%) 52 (61.9%) 48 (57.8%) 0.637 38 (70.4%) 37 (69.8%) 1.000
  1. Non-DM and DM patients were further divided into subgroups according to median value of glycemic gap (Group 1: glycemic gap ≤ 0.995 mmol/L; Group 2: glycemic gap > 0.995 mmol/L; Group 3: glycemic gap ≤ 2.427 mmol/L; Group 4: glycemic gap > 2.427 mmol/L)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, Tg triglycerides, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cTnI cardiac troponin I, hs-CRP hypersensitive C-reactive protein, ABG admission blood glucose, FBG fasting blood glucose, HBA1C glycated hemoglobin, DPP-4 inhibitors dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker