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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with aortic stenosis with or without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM)

From: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the severity of aortic stenosis in patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes

VariableNonDM patients (n = 76)DM patients (n = 50)p-value
Age, years68 [66–72]70 [66–74]0.18
Male, n (%)41 (53.9)31 (62)0.37
BMI, kg/m228.4 [26.6–31.2]31.3 [28.7–34.5]< 0.001
Risk factors, n (%)
 Arterial hypertension70 (92.1)50 (100)0.08
 Hypercholesterolemia20 (26.3)10 (20)0.52
 Current smoking9 (11.8)8 (16)0.60
Medications, n (%)
 Beta-blockers61 (80.3)47 (94)0.038
 Acetylsalicylic acid52 (68.4)40 (80)0.22
 ACE inhibitors53 (69.7)45 (90)0.008
 Statins56 (73.7)46 (92)0.011
 Insulin014 (28)< 0.0001
 Metformin036 (72)< 0.0001
Echocardiographic parameters
 Mean gradient, mmHg48 [42–59]52 [43–66]0.067
 Maximum gradient, mmHg82.3 ± 14.289.2 ± 12.30.054
 LVEF, %60 [55–65]60 [58–64]0.39
 AVA, cm20.86 [0.7–0.95]0.78 [0.6–0.8]0.048
Laboratory investigation
 Fibrinogen, g/L3.4 ± 0.83.6 ± 0.60.28
 Creatinine, µmol/L74 [65–89]81 [74–100]0.011
 hsCRP, mg/L1.2 [1.0–4.0]1.0 [1.0–2.0]0.34
 Glucose, mmol/L5.2 [4.9–5.6]7.5 [5.9–9.1]< 0.0001
 HbA1c, %5.4 [5.2–5.7]6.8 [6.3–7.8]< 0.0001
 Insulin, µIU/mL16.5 [13.1–19.9]16.4 [12.3–23.4]0.41
 Fructosamine, µmol/L225 [217–236]262 [241–291]< 0.0001
 TC, mmol/L4.1 [3.7–4.8]3.8 [3.0–4.6]0.06
 LDL-C, mmol/L2.6 [2.1–3.3]2.3 [1.5–3.1]0.17
 HDL-C, mmol/L1.3 [1.1–1.6]1.2 [1.0–1.4]0.039
 Triglycerides, mmol/L1.2 [0.9–1.8]1.5 [1.2–2.0]0.27
  1. Data presented as numbers (percentages), mean ± SD or medians [interquartile range]. Categorical variables were analyzed by the Chi square test. The Mann–Whitney U or Student tests were used to compare differences between groups
  2. AS aortic stenosis, DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, ACE inhibitors angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, AVA aortic valve area, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol