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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of DCM patients

From: Impact of diabetes mellitus on left ventricular longitudinal function of patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

  Overall DCM patients (n = 206) DCM patients with T2DM (n = 55) DCM patients without T2DM (n = 151) p value
Clinical data
 Age (years) 59 ± 17 62 ± 16 58 ± 18 0.10
 Female, n (%) 64 (31) 15 (28) 49 (33) 0.50
 Body surface area (m2) 1.6 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 0.82
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 109 ± 20 107 ± 18 110 ± 21 0.36
 Heart rate (bpm) 68 ± 16 69 ± 16 69 ± 17 0.21
 NYHA functional class ≥ III, n (%) 42 (20) 14 (26) 28 (19) 0.33
 T2DM, n (%) 55 (27) 55 (100) 0 (0)
 Hypertension, n (%) 40 (19) 10 (18) 30 (20) 0.84
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 58 (28) 21 (38) 37 (25) 0.06
Electrocardiogram
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 28 (14) 8 (15) 20 (13) 1.0
 QRS duration (msec) 113 ± 23 116 ± 22 112 ± 23 0.24
Blood examination
 HbA1c (%) 6.0 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.4 <0.0001
 BNP (pg/dL) 121 (112–555) 98 (54–212) 127 (54–240) 0.28
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 62 ± 19 58 ± 17 63 ± 19 0.08
Medical treatment (for DCM), n (%)
 ACEI/ARB 200 (97) 53 (96) 147 (97) 1.0
 β-blocker 202 (98) 54 (98) 148 (98) 1.0
 MRA 99 (48) 29 (53) 70 (46) 0.43
 Loop diuretics 109 (53) 35 (64) 74 (49) 0.08
Medical treatment (for T2DM), n (%)
 Insulin 5 (2) 5 (9)
 DPP-4 inhibitor 33 (16) 33 (60)
 GLP-1RA 3 (1) 3 (6)
 Sulfonylurea 8 (4) 8 (15)
 α-GI 6 (3) 6 (11)
 Thiazolidine 2 (1) 2 (4)
 Metformin 33 (16) 33 (60)
 SGLT2 inhibitor 8 (4) 8 (15)
Echocardiography
 LV end-diastolic volume (mL) 171 ± 56 173 ± 56 170 ± 56 0.79
 LV end-systolic volume (mL) 120 ± 48 123 ± 47 119 ± 49 0.56
 LV ejection fraction (%) 31 ± 8 30 ± 8 31 ± 8 0.19
 Left atrial volume index (mL/m2) 51 ± 20 51 ± 25 51 ± 18 0.89
 LV mass index (g/m2) 128 ± 37 122 ± 32 131 ± 38 0.15
 E/e’ 14.3 ± 7.9 14.7 ± 7.5 14.1 ± 8.0 0.62
 MR ≥ moderate, n (%) 66 (32) 22 (40) 44 (29) 0.13
 GLS (%) 7.6 ± 2.0 7.0 ± 2.0 7.8 ± 2.2 0.03
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. DCM, dilated cardiomyopathy; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; NYHA, New York Heart Association; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1RA, glucagon like peptide-1receptor agonist; α-GI, α-glucosidase inhibitor; SGLT, sodium glucose cotransporter; LV, left ventricular; E, peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity; e’, spectral pulsed-wave Doppler–derived early diastolic velocity from the septal mitral annulus; MR, mitral regurgitation; GLS, global longitudinal strain