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Table 4 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ischemic stroke associated with the defined daily doses of pioglitazone

From: Pioglitazone for primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: a retrospective study

VariablesIschemic stroke (n = 306)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjust HR (95% CI)
EventPYIR
Pioglitazone, DDD (per year)
 017027,6826.141 (reference)1 (reference)
 < 1005812,0934.800.77 (0.57–1.03)0.79 (0.58–1.06)
 100–2504189354.590.74 (0.52–0.95)*0.74 (0.53–0.98)*
 > 2503782394.490.63 (0.45–0.84)**0.66 (0.46–0.87)*
 p for trend   0.020.04
  1. HR adjusted for age, sex, heart failure, arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertensive agents, lipid-lowering agents, anti-platelet agents, and oral glucose-lowering agents
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01