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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics of patients with DM treated with and without pioglitazone

From: Pioglitazone for primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: a retrospective study

CharacteristicsBefore PS matchingp-valueAfter PS matchingp-value
Non-pioglitazone user n = 32,337Pioglitazone user n = 7574Non-pioglitazone user n = 6539Pioglitazone user n = 6539
N%n%N%n%
Age, years
 < 5512,16037.60281037.100.42230235.2233835.750.51
 55–65896027.71246332.52< 0.0001208531.89212632.510.44
 ≥ 6511,21734.69230130.38< 0.0001215232.91207531.730.15
Mean ± SD59.48 ± 13.3659.09 ± 11.310.00159.74 ± 12.3259.52 ± 11.510.29    
Gender
 Female17,06852.78380150.18< 0.0001325049.70324249.580.89
 Male15,26947.22377349.82< 0.0001328950.30329750.420.89
Comorbidity
 Heart failure19205.943264.30< 0.00013064.682964.530.68
 Arrhythmia468614.4976810.14< 0.000169010.5569510.630.89
 Chronic kidney disease362111.2078810.400.0566510.1768110.410.65
Vascular risk factor
 Hypertension21,58966.76567774.95< 0.0001486374.37484374.060.69
 Hyperlipidemia21,38766.14595678.64< 0.0001500376.51502276.800.69
Number of risk factors
 118,75057.98313641.40< 0.0001289944.33284843.550.36
 213,58742.02443858.60< 0.0001364055.67369156.450.36
Drug use
 Hypertensive agents
  ACEI13,08740.4740.1653.02< 0.0001338251.72338651.780.94
  ARB721322.31272736.00< 0.0001225734.52226334.610.91
  α-Blocker674420.86161621.340.35141821.69141821.691.00
  β-Blocker19,37959.93449859.390.39387359.23389359.540.72
  CCB13,76642.57356947.48<0.0001315448.23308747.210.24
  Diuretics12,47438.58304540.200.009270241.32265640.620.41
  Others27368.465387.100.00014637.084757.260.68
Number of hypertensive agents
 ≤ 110,91133.74209627.67< 0.0001180927.66183428.050.62
 2743222.98156120.61< 0.0001135620.7413.4220.520.76
 ≥ 313,99443.28391751.72< 0.0001337451.6336351.430.84
Hypolipidemic agents
 Statin10,36632.06450659.49< 0.0001366456.03366456.031.00
  Initial statin therapy
  High intensity*320.31160.360.01130.35130.351.00
  Moderate intensity**541852.27267759.41< 0.0001193652.84215358.76< 0.0001
  Low intensity***491647.42181340.24< 0.0001171546.81149840.88< 0.0001
Fibrate698421.6280537.03< 0.0001230435.23228234.900.69
Others762123.57288138.04< 0.0001239736.66238336.440.80
Anti-platelet agents
 Aspirin17,43853.93435457.49< 0.0001373557.12372356.940.83
 Warfarin3200.99500.660.007440.67470.720.75
 Clopidogrel5751.781782.350.0011492.281592.430.56
 Others26448.186368.400.525388.235518.430.68
Oral antidiabetic agents
 Metformin10,10331.24658886.98< 0.0001561085.79555784.980.19
 Sulfonylureas12,47838.59711193.89< 0.0001615594.13607692.920.01
 DPP4 inhibitors5691.766728.870.0014657.114997.630.26
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor19776.11252133.28< 0.0001151523.17168525.770.001
 Glinide13384.14143018.88< 0.000192514.15103415.810.01
Number of oral antidiabetic agents
 ≤ 123,54472.8189311.79< 0.000189613.7089313.660.94
 2655320.26341845.13< 0.0001356154.46336051.380.0004
 317235.33241131.83< 0.0001156823.98180827.65< 0.0001
 ≥ 45171.6085211.25< 0.00015147.864787.310.23
Follow-up duration, year5.25 ± 3.194.36 ± 2.36<0.00014.19 ± 2.644.45 ± 2.39< 0.0001    
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD
  2. Number of oral glucose-lowering agents used including metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP4 inhibitors, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and glinide
  3. PS propensity score, ACEI angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, CCB calcium channel blockers
  4. * High-intensity statins: atorvastatin ≥ 40 mg/day, or rosuvastatin ≥ 20 mg/day
  5. ** Moderate-intensity statins: 10 mg/day ≤ atorvastatin < 40 mg/day, 5 mg/day ≤ rosuvastatin < 20 mg/day, 20 mg/day ≤ simvastatin, pravastatin ≥ 40 mg/day, lovastatin ≥ 40 mg/day and fluvastatin ≥ 80 mg/day
  6. *** Low-intensity statins: atorvastatin < 10 mg/day, rosuvastatin < 5 mg/day, simvastatin < 20 mg/day, pravastatin < 40 mg/day, lovastatin < 40 mg/day, and fluvastatin < 80 mg/day