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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes incidence in all diabetic patients and divided into tertiles of 24-month systolic blood pressure visit-to-visit variability (standard deviation)

From: Prognostic importance of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

CharacteristicsAll patients (n = 632)1st-tertile SBP-SD ≤ 11.93 mmHg (n = 211)2nd-tertile SBP-SD 11.94-17.63 mmHg (n = 215)3rd-tertile SBP-SD ≥ 17.64 mmHg (n = 206)p value
Age (years)60.0 (9.5)57.3 (9.7)60.5 (9.5)62.3 (8.6)< 0.001
Male sex (%)38.638.842.734.50.20
BMI (kg/m2)29.7 (4.9)29.4 (5.0)29.5 (4.8)30.2 (4.7)0.13
Smoking, current/past (%)45.045.248.041.80.39
Physical activity (%)22.426.621.819.00.15
Diabetes duration (years)8 (3–15)7 (2–15)7 (3–13)10 (4–18)0.002
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease9.14.97.114.70.001
 Coronary artery disease15.112.913.319.00.11
 Peripheral artery disease16.88.518.223.4< 0.001
 Retinopathy32.423.432.740.7< 0.001
 Nephropathy31.426.929.937.10.057
 Peripheral neuropathy29.222.127.637.70.001
 Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy18.517.417.819.80.81
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin87.789.287.186.60.67
 Sulfonylureas43.247.340.441.80.30
 Insulin47.838.252.452.60.031
 Aspirin89.683.693.393.50.010
 Dyslipidemia (%)87.185.289.386.60.42
 Statins use (%)77.774.379.678.80.38
 Arterial hypertension (%)86.577.189.392.7< 0.001
 Number of anti-hypertensive drugs3 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)3 (2–4)< 0.001
 ACE inhibitors/AR blockers (%)81.269.684.988.8< 0.001
 Diuretics (%)62.647.861.378.0< 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers (%)28.021.029.333.60.010
 Beta-blockers (%)46.435.344.059.5< 0.001
Blood pressures (mmHg)
 Mean 12-month clinic SBP141 (20)132 (16)140 (16)151 (19)< 0.001
 Mean 12-month clinic DBP80 (10)78 (8)79 (9)82 (10)< 0.001
 Mean 24-month clinic SBP141 (18)132 (15)140 (15)150 (22)< 0.001
 Mean 24-month clinic DBP79 (9)77 (8)78 (9)82 (12)< 0.001
 Ambulatory 24 h SBP129 (15)124 (13)128 (12)134 (18)< 0.001
 Ambulatory 24 h DBP74 (10)73 (8)73 (9)75 (12)0.13
Laboratory variables
 Mean 12-month HbA1c (%)7.7 (1.6)7.4 (1.4)7.8 (1.4)7.8 (1.6)0.005
Mean 12-month HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol)61 (17.5)57 (15.3)62 (15.3)62 (17.5) 
 Mean 24-month HbA1c (%)7.7 (1.4)7.5 (1.5)7.8 (1.4)7.8 (1.4)0.044
Mean 24-month HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol)61 (15.3)58 (13.0)62 (15.3)62 (15.3) 
 Mean 12-month triacylglycerol (mmol/mol)1.90 (1.54)1.80 (1.26)1.76 (1.08)2.12 (2.03)0.058
 Mean 24-month triacylglycerol (mmol/mol)1.90 (1.42)2.12 (1.48)1.80 (1.04)2.01 (1.67)0.21
 Mean 12-month HDL-cholesterol (mmol/mol)1.13 (0.49)1.18 (0.63)1.14 (0.32)1.11 (0.29)0.19
 Mean 24-month HDL-cholesterol (mmol/mol)1.14 (0.33)1.16 (0.39)1.15 (0.30)1.12 (0.28)0.34
 Mean 12-month LDL-cholesterol (mmol/mol)2.79 (0.85)2.71 (0.81)2.73 (0.81)2.90 (0.88)0.030
 Mean 24-month LDL-cholesterol (mmol/mol)2.72 (0.77)2.63 (0.71)2.71 (0.76)2.81 (0.81)0.037
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2)81 (20)85 (21)82 (19)76 (20)< 0.001
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h)13 (7–41)12 (6–26)13 (7–39)17 (8–72)0.003
Macrovascular outcomesa
 Total CVEs162 (2.72)41 (1.99)57 (2.73)64 (3.56)0.002
 Major CVEs132 (2.17)32 (1.51)46 (2.16)54 (2.95)0.001
 Cardiovascular mortality95 (1.52)24 (1.11)29 (1.32)42 (2.22)0.003
 All-cause mortality212 (3.38)51 (2.36)67 (3.05)94 (4.96)< 0.001
Microvascular outcomesb
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 524)153 (5.05)49 (4.42)49 (4.60)55 (6.44)0.031
 Renal composite (n = 614)193 (3.67)56 (3.08)66 (3.61)71 (4.46)0.048
 Microalbuminuria (incident) (n = 565)121 (2.53)36 (2.20)45 (2.73)40 (2.67)0.56
 Renal failure (n = 614)95 (1.61)27 (1.34)30 (1.45)38 (2.14)0.035
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 506)171 (33.8)46 (24.7)69 (39.9)56 (38.1)0.004
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AR, angiotensin II receptor; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FG, fasting glycemia; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; CVEs, cardiovascular events
  3. aValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up)
  4. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)