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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the controls and DM patients

From: The additive effects of obesity on myocardial microcirculation in diabetic individuals: a cardiac magnetic resonance first-pass perfusion study

 Controls (n = 79)DM patients (n = 120)P valueP valueP value
Normal-weight (n = 33)Overweight (n = 27)Obese (n = 19)P valueåNormal-weight (n = 51)Overweight (n = 29)Obese (n = 40)P valueß
Age (y)55.27 ± 8.1854.59 ± 9.1256.89 ± 9.790.46255.06 ± 13.2158.00 ± 10.0557.00 ± 11.090.5410.9350.2020.972
Female13 (39.3%)13 (29.6%)9 (42.1%)0.68028 (54.9%)10 (27.6%)17 (35.0%)0.5770.1860.4160.784
BMI (kg/m2)21.94 ± 1.0124.00 ± 0.55*26.53 ± 0.90* §0.00021.26 ± 1.2123.75 ± 0.56 *26.92 ± 1.59 * §0.0000.0730.1140.227
Smoking history8 (24.2%)8 (29.6%)7 (36.8%)0.6279 (17.6%)8 (27.6%)10 (25.0%)0.5320.5800.5500.372
Diabetes duration (y)6.51 ± 4.899.28 ± 6.519.35 ± 6.110.033
SBP (mm Hg)121.0 ± 11.7119.7 ± 14.2121.0 ± 13.10.917127.8 ± 16.9132.9 ± 22.3129.1 ± 14.40.5150.0260.0170.071
DBP (mm Hg)77.0 ± 8.878.7 ± 9.573.6 ± 9.80.19781.3 ± 12.779.5 ± 10.079.4 ± 9.70.7480.1010.7430.052
HbA1c (%)5.32 ± 0.445.41 ± 0.515.38 ± 0.480.8157.9 ± 2.47.8 ± 2.27.9 ± 1.60.9440.0000.0000.000
TG (mmol/L)1.32 ± 0.571.85 ± 1.252.12 ± 1.550.0341.59 ± 1.341.54 ± 0.752.39 ± 2.870.0900.2780.2620.706
TC (mmol/L)4.21 ± 0.954.51 ± 0.964.98 ± 1.520.5354.36 ± 1.184.18 ± 0.714.36 ± 1.250.7590.8690.4960.463
HDL (mmol/L)1.34 ± 0.141.38 ± 0.521.42 ± 0.270.7271.48 ± 0.501.18 ± 0.331.30 ± 01.01*0.1530.1220.0910.616
LDL (mmol/L)2.52 ± 0.492.49 ± 0.772.29 ± 0.850.4852.58 ± 0.852.41 ± 0.592.39 ± 0.770.4530.7380.6560.650
eGFR (mL/min)95.39 ± 9.3998.76 ± 11.1498.28 ± 8.720.37189.66 ± 21.4185.81 ± 24.3387.30 ± 25.720.7660.0970.0130.019
Cardiac troponin I (ug/L) -0.025 ± 0.0230.022 ± 0.0090.029 ± 0.0130.197
Atrial fibrillation01 (3.4%)1 (2.5%)0.450
Renal dysfunction^8 (15.7%)6 (20.7%)9 (22.5%)0.695
Retinopathy4 (7.8%)3 (10.3%)6 (15.0%)0.549
Peripheral neuropathy13 (25.5%)10 (34.5%)18 (45.0%)0.124
Biguanides18 (35.3%)13 (44.8%)21 (52.5%)0.254
Sulfonylureas9 (17.6%)4 (13.7%)10 (25.0%)0.474
α-Glucosidase inhibitor13 (25.5%)11 (37.9%)18 (45.0%)0.140
GLP-1/DPP-4 inhibitor3 (5.9%)2 (6.9%)2 (5.0%)0.946
Insulin12 (23.5%)8 (27.6%)6 (15.0%)0.417
ACEI/ARB9 (17.6%)6 (20.7%)8 (20.0%)0.934
Statin4 (7.8%)7 (24.1%)8 (20.0%)0.107
LVEDV/BSA (ml/m2)73.53 ± 13.5478.71 ± 17.5576.30 ± 13.770.41880.21 ± 24.5480.56 ± 20.3070.31 ± 12.410.0400.1570.7170.100
LVESV/BSA (ml/m2)29.89 ± 11.6832.37 ± 14.6733.18 ± 18.510.68532.98 ± 18.7732.71 ± 16.6929.33 ± 10.810.5190.4000.9370.318
LVEF (%)61.68 ± 4.8260.52 ± 8.1161.86 ± 5.710.71860.11 ± 7.7561.39 ± 12.0959.64 ± 9.040.7380.3010.7550.343
LV mass/BSA (g/m2)47.26 ± 15.3349.75 ± 18.7650.87 ± 10.370.68552.62 ± 19.4156.93 ± 13.5552.67 ± 14.150.4790.1850.1050.617
Rest heart rate70.6 ± 11.473.5 ± 11.972.5 ± 9.00.58574.9 ± 12.171.4 ± 10.073.4 ± 9.40.3960.1100.4830.732
LV remodeling index#0.59 ± 0.110.64 ± 0.130.69 ± 0.160.0470.66 ± 0.140.72 ± 0.130.75 ± 0.15*0.0080.0200.0460.157
  1. Values are means ± standard deviations or n (%)
  2. P valueå, P valueß: P values refer to the differences among three subgroups across different BMI scales within controls (å) or DM patients (ß) based on Fisher’s exact test or one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test; * p < 0.017 versus Normal weight group; §p < 0.017 versus overweight group
  3. P value, P value and P value: DM patients versus controls based on Fisher’s exact test or Student’s t-test in normal-weight (P value), overweight (P value), and obese (P value) subgroups, respectively
  4. ^Renal dysfunction: estimated creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min; #LV remodeling index: LV mass/LVEDV. BMI body mass index, BSA body surface area, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG plasma triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ACEI asngiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers