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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the controls and DM patients

From: The additive effects of obesity on myocardial microcirculation in diabetic individuals: a cardiac magnetic resonance first-pass perfusion study

 

Controls (n = 79)

DM patients (n = 120)

P value

P value

P value

Normal-weight (n = 33)

Overweight (n = 27)

Obese (n = 19)

P valueå

Normal-weight (n = 51)

Overweight (n = 29)

Obese (n = 40)

P valueß

Age (y)

55.27 ± 8.18

54.59 ± 9.12

56.89 ± 9.79

0.462

55.06 ± 13.21

58.00 ± 10.05

57.00 ± 11.09

0.541

0.935

0.202

0.972

Female

13 (39.3%)

13 (29.6%)

9 (42.1%)

0.680

28 (54.9%)

10 (27.6%)

17 (35.0%)

0.577

0.186

0.416

0.784

BMI (kg/m2)

21.94 ± 1.01

24.00 ± 0.55*

26.53 ± 0.90* §

0.000

21.26 ± 1.21

23.75 ± 0.56 *

26.92 ± 1.59 * §

0.000

0.073

0.114

0.227

Smoking history

8 (24.2%)

8 (29.6%)

7 (36.8%)

0.627

9 (17.6%)

8 (27.6%)

10 (25.0%)

0.532

0.580

0.550

0.372

Diabetes duration (y)

6.51 ± 4.89

9.28 ± 6.51

9.35 ± 6.11

0.033

SBP (mm Hg)

121.0 ± 11.7

119.7 ± 14.2

121.0 ± 13.1

0.917

127.8 ± 16.9

132.9 ± 22.3

129.1 ± 14.4

0.515

0.026

0.017

0.071

DBP (mm Hg)

77.0 ± 8.8

78.7 ± 9.5

73.6 ± 9.8

0.197

81.3 ± 12.7

79.5 ± 10.0

79.4 ± 9.7

0.748

0.101

0.743

0.052

HbA1c (%)

5.32 ± 0.44

5.41 ± 0.51

5.38 ± 0.48

0.815

7.9 ± 2.4

7.8 ± 2.2

7.9 ± 1.6

0.944

0.000

0.000

0.000

TG (mmol/L)

1.32 ± 0.57

1.85 ± 1.25

2.12 ± 1.55

0.034

1.59 ± 1.34

1.54 ± 0.75

2.39 ± 2.87

0.090

0.278

0.262

0.706

TC (mmol/L)

4.21 ± 0.95

4.51 ± 0.96

4.98 ± 1.52

0.535

4.36 ± 1.18

4.18 ± 0.71

4.36 ± 1.25

0.759

0.869

0.496

0.463

HDL (mmol/L)

1.34 ± 0.14

1.38 ± 0.52

1.42 ± 0.27

0.727

1.48 ± 0.50

1.18 ± 0.33

1.30 ± 01.01*

0.153

0.122

0.091

0.616

LDL (mmol/L)

2.52 ± 0.49

2.49 ± 0.77

2.29 ± 0.85

0.485

2.58 ± 0.85

2.41 ± 0.59

2.39 ± 0.77

0.453

0.738

0.656

0.650

eGFR (mL/min)

95.39 ± 9.39

98.76 ± 11.14

98.28 ± 8.72

0.371

89.66 ± 21.41

85.81 ± 24.33

87.30 ± 25.72

0.766

0.097

0.013

0.019

Cardiac troponin I (ug/L) -

0.025 ± 0.023

0.022 ± 0.009

0.029 ± 0.013

0.197

Atrial fibrillation

0

1 (3.4%)

1 (2.5%)

0.450

Renal dysfunction^

8 (15.7%)

6 (20.7%)

9 (22.5%)

0.695

Retinopathy

4 (7.8%)

3 (10.3%)

6 (15.0%)

0.549

Peripheral neuropathy

13 (25.5%)

10 (34.5%)

18 (45.0%)

0.124

Biguanides

18 (35.3%)

13 (44.8%)

21 (52.5%)

0.254

Sulfonylureas

9 (17.6%)

4 (13.7%)

10 (25.0%)

0.474

α-Glucosidase inhibitor

13 (25.5%)

11 (37.9%)

18 (45.0%)

0.140

GLP-1/DPP-4 inhibitor

3 (5.9%)

2 (6.9%)

2 (5.0%)

0.946

Insulin

12 (23.5%)

8 (27.6%)

6 (15.0%)

0.417

ACEI/ARB

9 (17.6%)

6 (20.7%)

8 (20.0%)

0.934

Statin

4 (7.8%)

7 (24.1%)

8 (20.0%)

0.107

LVEDV/BSA (ml/m2)

73.53 ± 13.54

78.71 ± 17.55

76.30 ± 13.77

0.418

80.21 ± 24.54

80.56 ± 20.30

70.31 ± 12.41

0.040

0.157

0.717

0.100

LVESV/BSA (ml/m2)

29.89 ± 11.68

32.37 ± 14.67

33.18 ± 18.51

0.685

32.98 ± 18.77

32.71 ± 16.69

29.33 ± 10.81

0.519

0.400

0.937

0.318

LVEF (%)

61.68 ± 4.82

60.52 ± 8.11

61.86 ± 5.71

0.718

60.11 ± 7.75

61.39 ± 12.09

59.64 ± 9.04

0.738

0.301

0.755

0.343

LV mass/BSA (g/m2)

47.26 ± 15.33

49.75 ± 18.76

50.87 ± 10.37

0.685

52.62 ± 19.41

56.93 ± 13.55

52.67 ± 14.15

0.479

0.185

0.105

0.617

Rest heart rate

70.6 ± 11.4

73.5 ± 11.9

72.5 ± 9.0

0.585

74.9 ± 12.1

71.4 ± 10.0

73.4 ± 9.4

0.396

0.110

0.483

0.732

LV remodeling index#

0.59 ± 0.11

0.64 ± 0.13

0.69 ± 0.16

0.047

0.66 ± 0.14

0.72 ± 0.13

0.75 ± 0.15*

0.008

0.020

0.046

0.157

  1. Values are means ± standard deviations or n (%)
  2. P valueå, P valueß: P values refer to the differences among three subgroups across different BMI scales within controls (å) or DM patients (ß) based on Fisher’s exact test or one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test; * p < 0.017 versus Normal weight group; §p < 0.017 versus overweight group
  3. P value, P value and P value: DM patients versus controls based on Fisher’s exact test or Student’s t-test in normal-weight (P value), overweight (P value), and obese (P value) subgroups, respectively
  4. ^Renal dysfunction: estimated creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min; #LV remodeling index: LV mass/LVEDV. BMI body mass index, BSA body surface area, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG plasma triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ACEI asngiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers