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Table 4 Summary showing which studies reported significant and non-significant associations between carotid disease and retinopathy

From: The relationship between carotid disease and retinopathy in diabetes: a systematic review

Carotid disease variableAny diabetic retinopathyOther diabetic retinopathy
CCA IMTNon-significantAlonso [28]
Cardoso [29]
Distiller [31]
Yun [10]
Araszkiewicz [30]
Alonso [28]—DR severity
Cardoso [23]— new or worsening DR
SignificantLiu [34]
Jung [27]
Ichinohasama [8]—mild NPDR
Other IMTNon-significantAlonso [28]—BIF
Cardoso [29]—ICA & BIF
Alonso [28]—ICA & BIF, DR severity
Cardoso [23] —ICA & BIF, new or worsening DR
SignificantAlonso [28]—ICA
Rema [9]—Mean IMT
 
Plaque/StenosisNon-significantHjelmgren [32]
Carbonell [7]
Jung [27]
Yun [10]
Alonso [28]—DR severity
Cardoso [23]—new or worsening DR
SignificantLiu [34]
Alonso [28]
Lacroix [33]
Distiller [31]
Cardoso [29]
Carbonell [7]—advanced DR
OtherNon-significantDistiller [31]—IMT risk 
SignificantLiu [34]—any plaque and/or CCA IMT > 1 mm
Son [10]—any plaque and/or CCA IMT > 0.9 mm
  1. BIF bifurcation, CCA common carotid artery, DR diabetic retinopathy, ICA internal carotid artery, IMT intima-media thickness