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Table 2 Comparison of variables between high and low GV groups

From: Association of glycemic variability with left ventricular diastolic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

VariablesHigh GV group (n = 43)Low GV group (n = 57)p value
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years61.2 ± 15.059.4 ± 13.10.53
 Gender (female), n (%)19 (44)26 (46)0.89
 DM duration, years12 (0.5–42)8 (0.1–34)0.04
 Body weight, kg63.7 ± 13.469.6 ± 17.00.07
 BSA, m21.67 ± 0.191.73 ± 0.240.15
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg131 ± 21128 ± 170.44
 Heart rate, bpm72 ± 1076 ± 100.05
 BUN, mg/dL16.5 ± 5.815.0 ± 5.60.20
 Creatinine, mg/dL0.93 ± 0.450.80 ± 0.400.13
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m266.2 ± 22.878.8 ± 25.90.01
 HbA1c, %8.7 ± 1.98.3 ± 2.00.23
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension26 (60)32 (56)0.67
 Dyslipidemia25 (58)38 (67)0.39
Anti-hypertensive drugs, n (%)
 Calcium channel blockers22 (37)16 (39)0.89
 ACE inhibitor/ARB32 (56)22 (51)0.63
 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist1 (2)0 (0)0.25
Anti-diabetic drugs, n (%)
 DPP-4 inhibitor20 (47)31 (54)0.44
 GLP-1 RA3 (7)8 (14)0.27
 SU15 (35)12 (23)0.19
 α-GI10 (23)13 (23)0.96
 Thiazalidine2 (5)6 (11)0.29
 Metformin18 (42)39 (68)0.007
 SGLT2 inhibitor0 (0)3 (5)0.13
Echocardiographic parameters
 LV end-diastolic volume, mL76.1 ± 23.475.9 ± 20.90.97
 LV end-systolic volume, mL25.9 ± 11.327.5 ± 10.20.48
 LVEF, %66.8 ± 5.464.8 ± 4.30.04
 LVMI, g/m281.7 ± 19.478.5 ± 18.50.41
 LAVI, mL/m231.4 ± 8.829.2 ± 7.10.17
 e’, cm/s5.9 ± 1.86.2 ± 1.50.44
 E/e’11.3 ± 3.99.8 ± 2.80.03
Trans-mitral flow
 E, cm/s61.1 ± 12.858.1 ± 14.20.28
 DcT, msec210 ± 49205 ± 550.59
 E/A0.8 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.30.75
Pulmonary venous flow
 S, cm/s67.2 ± 16.864.0 ± 15.30.36
 D, cm/s43.3 ± 8.440.0 ± 7.30.04
 S/D1.6 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.70.65
 A, cm/s42.5 ± 24.934.8 ± 13.80.07
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. Assessment of pulmonary venous flow was available in 40 patients (High GV group) and 50 patients (Low GV group)
  3. GV glycemic viability
  4. All other abbreviation as in Table 1