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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and medical history by hHF during the trial

From: Heart failure with insulin degludec versus glargine U100 in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular disease: DEVOTE 14

 hHF during trial, n = 372No hHF during trial, n = 7265p-value
Age, years65.8 (± 8.1)64.9 (± 7.3)0.022
Male, n (%)222 (59.7)4556 (62.7)NS
Region, n (% from North America)299 (80.4)4972 (68.4)0.0001
Established CVD/CKD ≥ 50 years, n (%)349 (93.8)6160 (84.8)< 0.0001
Hepatic impairment, n (%)37 (9.9)159 (2.2)< 0.0001
Current smoker, n (%)40 (10.8)812 (11.2)NS
Insulin naïve, n (%)36 (9.7)1192 (16.4)0.0006
A1C, %8.6 (± 1.8)8.4 (± 1.6)NS
FPG, mmol/L9.8 (± 4.5)9.5 (± 3.9)NS
Duration of diabetes, years17.6 (± 9.1)16.4 (± 8.9)0.006
BMI, kg/m235.5 (± 7.3)33.5 (± 6.8)< 0.001
Body weight, kg101.2 (± 23.8)95.8 (± 22.8)< 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m259.0 (± 22.6)68.4 (± 21.4)< 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)137.1 (± 21.2)135.5 (± 17.9)NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75.1 (± 12.4)76.2 (± 10.3)0.039
Pulse, beats/min73.2 (11.6)73.1 (11.3)
Prior heart failure, n (%)219 (58.9)1115 (15.3)
Prior myocardial infarction, n (%)182 (48.9)2424 (33.4)
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)97 (26.1)627 (8.6)
Macular edema, n (%)5 (1.3)24 (0.3)
Proteinuria (microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria), n (%)107 (28.8)1710 (23.5)
Insulin, n (%)
 Long acting241 (64.8)4356 (60.0)b
 Intermediate actinga59 (15.9)1015 (14.0)b
 Bolus186 (50.0)2645 (36.4)b
 Premix46 (12.4)736 (10.1)b
Antihypertensive therapy, n (%)
 Beta-blockers279 (75.0)4121 (56.7)c
 Calcium channel blockers136 (36.6)2322 (32.0)c
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors163 (43.8)3464 (47.7)c
 Angiotensin receptor blockers139 (37.4)2416 (33.3)c
 Others62 (16.7)715 (9.8)c
Diuretics, n (%)
 Loop diuretics226 (60.8)1512 (20.8)c
 Thiazides68 (18.3)1674 (23.0)c
 Others95 (25.5)976 (13.4)c
Lipid-modifying medications, n (%)
 Statins297 (79.8)5705 (78.5)c
 Fibrates44 (11.8)807 (11.1)c
 Ezetimibe18 (4.8)328 (4.5)c
 Others11 (3.0)257 (3.5)c
Platelet aggregation inhibitors, n (%)
 Acetylsalicylic acid253 (68.0)4739 (65.2)c
 Others108 (29.0)1689 (23.2)c
Anti-thrombotic medication, n (%)78 (21.0)519 (7.1)c
  1. Values are mean (± SD), unless otherwise stated
  2. Hepatic impairment defined as having a score of > 2 on a modified Child–Pugh criteria scale using only bilirubin and albumin values
  3. A1C glycosylated hemoglobin, BMI body mass index, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FPG fasting plasma glucose, hHF hospitalization for heart failure, NS not statistically significant, SD standard deviation
  4. aIntermediate acting insulin cover human insulin, neutral protamine Hagedorn and unknown types of insulin
  5. bSix patients have missing initiation drug date; they are assumed to be on treatment at baseline
  6. cNine patients have missing initiation drug date; they are assumed to be on treatment at baseline