Skip to main content

Table 3 Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality during follow up according to the presence, type, and duration of diabetes mellitus

From: Risk of early mortality and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: a comparison with type 2 diabetes, a nationwide study

 Individuals without diabetesIndividuals with type 2 diabetes (diabetes duration < 5 years)Individuals with type 2 diabetes (diabetes duration ≥ 5 years)Individuals with type 1 diabetes (diabetes duration < 5 years)Individuals with type 1 diabetes (diabetes duration ≥ 5 years)
n = 18,500,151n = 1,158,637n = 754,866n = 8,523n = 874
Myocardial infarction
 Events (n)83,71214,98617,68025714
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,157,841.275,516,027.033,677,744.0841,701.722,604.79
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)99.470271.681480.729616.282537.471
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.635 (1.607–1.664)2.135 (2.100–2.171)3.295 (2.915–3.724)3.904 (2.314–6.586)
1 (Ref.)1.387 (1.357–1.418)2.072 (1.832–2.344)2.343 (1.387–3.956)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.394 (1.369–1.419)1.837 (1.807–1.868)2.825 (2.499–3.193)3.303 (1.958–5.573)
1 (Ref.)1.374 (1.344–1.405)2.044 (1.807–2.313)2.295 (1.359–3.875)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.361 (1.336–1.386)1.792 (1.761–1.823)2.729 (2.414–3.085)3.136 (1.857–5.295)
1 (Ref.)1.385 (1.355–1.416)2.025 (1.790–2.291)2.247 (1.331–3.796)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.250 (1.226–1.276)1.628 (1.596–1.661)2.418 (2.137–2.735)2.830 (1.677–4.774)
1 (Ref.)1.351 (1.321–1.381)1.955 (1.728–2.212)2.200 (1.303–3.715)
Hospitalization for HF
 Events (n)89,17315,92620,52235818
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,188,450.195,521,605.873,681,471.6741,639.932,598.64
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)105.921288.431557.440859.752692.670
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.515 (1.490–1.541)1.999 (1.969–2.030)3.922 (3.536–4.351)4.682 (2.958–7.411)
1 (Ref.)1.373 (1.345–1.402)2.624 (2.363–2.913)3.063 (1.934-4.851)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.381 (1.357–1.405)1.841 (1.813–1.870)3.578 (3.225–3.969)4.196 (2.650–6.643)
1 (Ref.)1.371 (1.343–1.400)2.596 (2.338–2.883)3.000 (1.894–4.750)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.364 (1.340–1.388)1.802 (1.774–1.831)3.379 (3.045–3.749)3.927 (2.474–6.234)
1 (Ref.)1.371 (1.343–1.400)2.495 (2.247–2.771)2.843 (1.791–4.514)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.236 (1.212–1.260)1.626 (1.596–1.656)3.036 (2.734–3.371)3.535 (2.232–5.597)
1 (Ref.)1.346 (1.318–1.375)2.452 (2.208–2.723)2.787 (1.756–4.426)
Atrial fibrillation
 Events (n)105,56215,01914,72421314
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,127,796.335,518,697.123,686,232.2641,821.142,604.57
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)125.478272.148399.432509.312537.517
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.242 (1.221–1.264)1.296 (1.273–1.318)2.029 (1.774–2.321)3.015 (1.787–5.086)
1 (Ref.)1.072 (1.048–1.097)1.654 (1.445–1.894)2.381 (1.412–4.014)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.117 (1.098–1.136)1.180 (1.159–1.201)1.846 (1.614–2.112)2.705 (1.603–4.563)
1 (Ref.)1.081 (1.057–1.107)1.669 (1.458–1.911)2.378 (1.411–4.008)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.124 (1.105–1.144)1.171 (1.150–1.192)1.793 (1.567–2.051)2.650 (1.570–4.475)
1 (Ref.)1.070 (1.045–1.095)1.610 (1.407–1.844)2.297 (1.360–3.880)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.060 (1.039–1.081)1.114 (1.091–1.137)1.714 (1.497–1.962)2.508 (1.486–4.232)
1 (Ref.)1.074 (1.050–1.099)1.637 (1.430–1.875)2.332 (1.384–3.930)
All-cause mortality
 Events (n)249,62245,14548,87384135
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,326,798.165,547,858.833,713,739.9842,168.612,620.17
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)296.020813.7401,316.0001,994.3701,335.790
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.483 (1.468–1.498)1.659 (1.643–1.675)3.150 (2.944–3.370)2.917 (2.094–4.062)
1 (Ref.)1.132 (1.118–1.147)2.124 (1.984–2.274)1.979 (1.422–2.755)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.588 (1.572–1.604)1.787 (1.770–1.805)3.355 (3.136–3.589)3.072 (2.206–4.278)
1 (Ref.)1.139 (1.124–1.154)2.101 (1.962–2.249)1.927 (1.384–2.684)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.533 (1.517–1.549)1.745 (1.727–1.763)3.135 (2.930–3.355)2.891 (2.075–4.026)
1 (Ref.)1.154 (1.139–1.169)2.044 (1.909–2.188)1.884 (1.353–2.625)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.434 (1.417–1.451)1.598 (1.579–1.617)2.893 (2.703–3.097)2.638 (1.894–3.674)
1 (Ref.)1.124 (1.109–1.138)2.009 (1.876–2.151)1.836 (1.319–2.557)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  2. Model 2: adjusted for model 1 + smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, body mass index, hypertension, and dyslipidemia
  3. Model 3: adjusted for model 1 + smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, metabolic syndrome, and end-stage renal disease
  4. Model 4: adjusted for model 2 + fasting plasma glucose
  5. HF heart failure. Statistically significant values among the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were given in italic