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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality during follow up according to the presence and type of diabetes mellitus

From: Risk of early mortality and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: a comparison with type 2 diabetes, a nationwide study

 Individuals without diabetesIndividuals with type 2 diabetesIndividuals with type 1 diabetes
n = 18,500,151n = 1,913,503n = 9,397
Myocardial infarction
 Events (n)83,71232,666271
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,157,841.279,193,771.1144,306.51
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)99.470355.306611.648
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.869 (1.845–1.894)3.321 (2.948–3.741)
1 (Ref.)1.771 (1.571–1.996)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.601 (1.580–1.623)2.844 (2.524–3.204)
1 (Ref.)1.751 (1.554–1.974)
 Model 2-11 (Ref.)1.279 (1.262–1.296)2.183 (1.938–2.459)
1 (Ref.)1.705 (1.513–1.922)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.562 (1.540–1.583)2.739 (2.430–3.086)
1 (Ref.)1.723 (1.529–1.942)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.418 (1.395–1.442)2.411 (2.138–2.718)
1 (Ref.)1.679 (1.490–1.893)
Hospitalization for HF
 Events (n)89,17336,448376
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,188,450.199,203,077.5444,238.57
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)105.921396.041849.937
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.753 (1.731–1.774)3.955 (3.575–4.376)
1 (Ref.)2.241 (2.025–2.480)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.606 (1.586–1.626)3.604 (3.257–3.988)
1 (Ref.)2.216 (2.002–2.453)
 Model 2-11 (Ref.)1.463 (1.445–1.482)3.233 (2.921–3.577)
1 (Ref.)2.195 (1.983–2.429)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.578 (1.558–1.599)3.390 (3.063–3.752)
1 (Ref.)2.120 (1.915–2.348)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.417 (1.395–1.440)3.024 (2.730–3.350)
1 (Ref.)2.105 (1.901–2.330)
Atrial fibrillation
 Events (n)105,56229,743227
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,127,796.339,204,929.3844,425.71
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)125.478323.120510.965
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.268 (1.251–1.284)2.073 (1.820–2.361)
1 (Ref.)1.630 (1.430–1.857)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.147 (1.132–1.162)1.885 (1.655–2.147)
1 (Ref.)1.636 (1.436–1.864)
 Model 2-11 (Ref.)1.046 (1.032–1.060)1.694 (1.487–1.929)
1 (Ref.)1.627 (1.427–1.853)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.147 (1.131–1.162)1.829 (1.605–2.084)
1 (Ref.)1.587 (1.392–1.808)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.085 (1.067–1.103)1.748 (1.534–1.993)
1 (Ref.)1.608 (1.411–1.833)
All-cause mortality
 Events (n)249,62294,018876
 Follow-up duration (person-years)84,326,798.169,261,598.8144,788.78
 Incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years)296.0201015.1401955.850
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.569 (1.557–1.581)3.145 (2.944–3.360)
1 (Ref.)1.990 (1.862–2.127)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.685 (1.672–1.698)3.345 (3.131–3.574)
1 (Ref.)1.961 (1.835–2.096)
 Model 2-11 (Ref.)1.885 (1.870–1.899)3.801 (3.557–4.062)
1 (Ref.)2.002 (1.873–2.139)
 Model 31 (Ref.)1.635 (1.622–1.648)3.120 (2.919–3.334)
1 (Ref.)1.893 (1.771–2.024)
 Model 41 (Ref.)1.510 (1.495–1.525)2.874 (2.689–3.073)
1 (Ref.)1.884 (1.762–2.013)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  2. Model 2: adjusted for model 1 + smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, body mass index, hypertension, and dyslipidemia
  3. Model 2-1: adjusted for model 1 + smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, body mass index, hypertension, and statin use. Statin use was defined as the prescription of statins for at least 6 months from baseline to the end of the follow-up
  4. Model 3: adjusted for model 1 + smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, metabolic syndrome, and end-stage renal disease
  5. Model 4: adjusted for model 2 + fasting plasma glucose
  6. HF heart failure. 
  7. Statistically significant values among the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were given in talic