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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample stratified by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) classification: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT (IFG + IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes (UT2D)

From: Glucose and insulin levels are associated with arterial stiffness and concentric remodeling of the heart

Parameter NGT i-IFG i-IGT IFG + IGT UT2D p-value*
N (%) 562 (56.1) 237 (23.7) 63 (6.29) 90 (8.99) 49 (4.90)  
Age (years) 47 (39, 57) 55 (46, 62) 51 (41, 62) 60 (52, 66) 61 (54, 68) < 0.001
Women (%) 52.7 32.5 55.6 31.1 34.7 < 0.001
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/l) 5.1 (4.9, 5.3) 5.9 (5.7, 6.2) 5.2 (4.9, 5.4) 6.0 (5.7, 6.3) 7.2 (6.3, 7.5) < 0.001
2-h postload serum glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 (4.6, 6.2) 6.0 (5.4, 6.8) 8.4 (8.1, 9.1) 8.8 (8.2, 9.5) 11.6 (10.1, 13.9) < 0.001
Fasting insulin (µlU/ml) 7.3 (5.2, 9.8) 10.7 (7.3, 14.9) 12.3 (7.1, 15.6) 14.4 (10.8, 19.0) 18.1 (13.5, 26.2) < 0.001
2-h postload insulin (µlU/ml) 37.0 (24.0, 57.0) 50.0 (32.0, 73.9) 97.6 (68.0, 160) 131 (75.5, 167) 132 (91.0, 187) < 0.001
Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) 1.65 (1.18, 2.25) 2.76 (1.91, 4.03) 2.69 (1.68, 3.63) 3.76 (2.86, 5.19) 5.71 (3.51, 7.94) < 0.001
Glycated hemoglobin (%) 5.2 (4.9, 5.4) 5.4 (5.2, 5.6) 5.3 (4.9, 5.6) 5.6 (5.2, 5.9) 6.0 (5.5, 6.4) < 0.001
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 93.9 (84.0, 103) 89.5 (79.8, 97.4) 87.7 (79.0, 100) 84.9 (73.6, 96.3) 88.1 (79.9, 96.1) < 0.001
Smoking (%)       
Never 40.8 38.4 41.3 40.0 49.0  
Current 23.5 18.6 11.1 14.4 14.3  
Former 35.8 43.0 47.6 45.6 36.7 0.080
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 4.25 (1.06, 13.4) 8.79 (2.69, 22.9) 2.90 (0.34, 12.9) 6.33 (1.45, 17.8) 4.69 (1.14, 12.9) 0.003
Weight (kg) 76.2 (65.8, 85.4) 84.4 (75.8, 94.0) 81.9 (74.3, 95.0) 89.3 (77.5, 96.1) 90.9 (81.2, 98.5) < 0.001
Height (cm) 171 (164, 179) 174 (165, 180) 170 (164, 175) 172 (167, 178) 173 (165, 176) 0.064
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.5 (23.3, 28.4) 28.1 (25.8, 30.7) 28.9 (26.6, 32.1) 29.3 (27.1, 31.7) 31.1 (27.7, 33.1) < 0.001
Body fat-free mass (kg) 52.5 (45.4, 64.2) 61.1 (51.6, 68.1) 55.7 (50.0, 60.8) 63.7 (53.2, 68.3) 61.3 (51.9, 68.1) < 0.001
Body fat mass (kg) 20.5 (16.5, 26.1) 23.8 (19.5, 29.2) 28.8 (20.3, 33.9) 25.6 (20.9, 32.2) 29.0 (23.2, 34.3) < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 86.2 (78.0, 95.2) 96.0 (88.1, 104) 94.5 (89.5, 106) 101 (94.0, 109) 104 (93.2, 112) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 (109, 130) 126 (116, 137) 128 (113, 139) 133 (123, 144) 137 (126, 150) < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.0 (68.0, 80.0) 77.5 (72.5, 83.5) 78.5 (72.5, 86.0) 81.5 (75.0, 89.0) 80.5 (72.5, 86.5) < 0.001
Hypertension (%) 23.1 45.2 52.4 67.8 77.6 < 0.001
Antihypertensive medications (%) 14.1 33.3 25.4 44.4 55.1 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.40 (4.80, 6.07) 5.60 (5.00, 6.38) 5.70 (4.90, 6.07) 4.16 (3.58, 4.80) 5.70 (4.90, 6.50) < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 32.7 51.9 44.4 54.4 57.1 < 0.001
Lipid-lowering medication (%) 4.27 10.6 14.3 3.33 18.4 < 0.001
Sedentarism (%) 30.4 32.5 33.3 36.7 38.8 0.619
  1. Data are medians (25th, 75th percentile) or percentage
  2. Italic values indicate significance of p-value < 0.05
  3. * p-values are based on the Chi-squared test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank-sum (or Mann–Whitney) tests for continuous variables