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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of propensity-matched cohorts at time of matching

From: Effects of exenatide and open-label SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, given in parallel or sequentially, on mortality and cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: insights from the EXSCEL trial

  Placebo comparison Exenatide comparison
Placebo, No SGLT2i Exenatide QW + SGLT2i Exenatide, No SGLT2i Exenatide QW + SGLT2i
Participants, n 572 572 575 575
Sex, male 380 (66%) 391 (68%) 399 (69%) 395 (69%)
Age, years 62 (10) 62 (9) 63 (10) 62 (9)
Race
 White 486 (85%) 487 (85%) 495 (86%) 488 (85%)
 Black 14 (2.4%) 20 (3.5%) 24 (4.2%) 22 (3.8%)
 Asian 52 (9.1%) 50 (8.7%) 44 (7.7%) 50 (8.7%)
 Other/unknown 20 (3.5%) 15 (2.6%) 12 (2.1%) 15 (2.6%)
Region
 North America 213 (37%) 212 (37%) 210 (37%) 215 (38%)
 Latin America 27 (4.7%) 27 (4.7%) 25 (4.3%) 26 (4.5%)
 Asia Pacific 53 (9.3%) 54 (9.4%) 50 (8.7%) 54 (9.4%)
 Western Europe 200 (35%) 182 (32%) 190 (33%) 186 (32%)
 Eastern Europe 79 (14%) 97 (17%) 100 (17%) 94 (16%)
Ethnicity, Hispanic 47 (8.2%) 33 (5.8%) 32 (5.6%) 33 (5.7%)
Duration of diabetes, years 16 (8) 16 (8) 17 (9) 16 (8)
History of CVD (CAD, PAD, or stroke) 377 (66%) 379 (66%) 395 (69%) 378 (66%)
History of heart failure 64 (11%) 62 (11%) 65 (11%) 63 (11%)
History of retinopathy 99 (17%) 108 (19%) 108 (19%) 109 (19%)
History of micro- or macro-albuminuria 172 (30%) 159 (28%) 164 (29%) 160 (28%)
 Microalbuminuria 147 (26%) 139 (24%) 134 (23%) 140 (24%)
 Macroalbuminuria 31 (5.4%) 28 (4.9%) 34 (5.9%) 28 (4.9%)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 133.6 (16.2) 133.4 (15.4) 133.1 (15.7) 133.4 (15.5)
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 76.6 (10.4) 77.5 (10.0) 77.3 (10.1) 77.5 (10.0)
BMI, kg/m2 33.9 (6.9) 34.1 (6.3) 34.1 (6.5) 34.1 (6.3)
HbA1c, % 8.3 (1.5) 8.2 (1.2) 8.2 (1.6) 8.2 (1.2)
Cholesterol, mmol/L 4.2 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2)
 LDL, mmol/L 2.3 (1.0) 2.2 (1.0) 2.2 (0.9) 2.2 (1.0)
 HDL, mmol/L 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3)
UACR (median, IQR), g/mol 2.2 [0.9,6.6] 1.4 [0.5,4.4] 1.9 [0.6,5.0] 1.4 [0.5,4.2]
Hemoglobin, g/L 137.3 (15.6) 140.2 (16.3) 137.0 (15.4) 140.1 (16.4)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 79.7 (26.4) 81.1 (22.0) 79.6 (25.8) 81.1 (22.2)
eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 130 (23%) 93 (16%) 132 (23%) 94 (16%)
eGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2 46 (8.0%) 18 (3.1%) 42 (7.3%) 19 (3.3%)
Smoking
 Never 83 (15%) 77 (13%) 67 (12%) 75 (13%)
 Past 234 (41%) 231 (40%) 258 (45%) 235 (41%)
 Current 255 (45%) 264 (46%) 250 (43%) 265 (46%)
Classes of diabetes medications (n)a 1.6 (0.9) 1.5 (0.9) 1.5 (0.9) 1.5 (0.9)
RAASi 458 (80%) 461 (81%) 471 (82%) 463 (81%)
Other antihypertensives 325 (57%) 353 (62%) 336 (58%) 353 (61%)
Statins 434 (76%) 460 (80%) 433 (75%) 462 (80%)
Diuretics 247 (43%) 240 (42%) 266 (46%) 238 (41%)
Insulin 312 (55%) 324 (57%) 321 (56%) 323 (56%)
Metformin 472 (83%) 482 (84%) 480 (83%) 481 (84%)
TZD 22 (3.8%) 29 (5.1%) 31 (5.4%) 32 (5.6%)
DPP-4i 192 (34%) 176 (31%) 186 (32%) 172 (30%)
Sulfonylureas 215 (38%) 190 (33%) 182 (32%) 189 (33%)
  1. Continuous metrics are reported as mean (SD). Categorical metrics are reported as n (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GLP1-RA glucagon‑like peptide‑1 receptor agonists, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoproteins, LDL low-density lipoproteins, PAD peripheral artery disease, RAASi renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, SD standard deviation, SGLT2i sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, TZD thiazolidinediones, UACR urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio
  3. aClasses of anti-hyperglycemic agents included: biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, DPP-4i, and TZD. Insulin, SGLT2i, and GLP1-RA (excluded by study protocol) are not included