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Fig. 6 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 6

From: Atrial fibrillation and its arrhythmogenesis associated with insulin resistance

Fig. 6

Expression of collagen, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, calcium homeostasis-related proteins, Rac1 activities, and superoxide production in high-fat (HFa) and high-fructose/cholesterol (HFr) diet-fed rat atria. a Representative examples (upper panel) and mean ± SE of the relative expression levels of each protein quantified by densitometry and normalized to the control level, which was set at 1.0 (lower panel). Each value represents the mean ± SE of four to six independent experiments. b Representative examples (upper panel) and mean ± SE of the relative expression levels of Rac1 activities quantified through densitometry and normalized to the control level, which was set at 1.0 (lower panel). Each value represents the mean ± SE of four independent experiments. c Evaluation of intracellular superoxide production through the detection of dihydroethidium (DHE). Representative examples (upper panel) and mean ± SE of the relative intensity of immunofluorescence of DHE (lower panel). N = 3 independent experiments. c Expression of collagen and TGF-β1 evaluated through confocal immunofluorescence. Representative examples (upper panel). The mean ± SE of relative intensity of immunofluorescence of each protein is normalized to control, which was set at 1.0 (lower panel). N = 3 independent experiments for each group. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s tests were applied for comparisons. *P < 0.05 versus control group

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