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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Improved home BP profile with dapagliflozin is associated with amelioration of albuminuria in Japanese patients with diabetic nephropathy: the Yokohama add-on inhibitory efficacy of dapagliflozin on albuminuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes study (Y-AIDA study)

Variables Mean ± SD or %
Age (year) 65.1 ± 10.1
Sex (male/female) 65/20
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.1 ± 4.7
Diabetes duration (year) 12.6 ± 9.2
Current smoker n (%) 17 (20.0)
Past smoker n (%) 32 (37.6)
Current drinker n (%) 43 (50.6)
Past drinker n (%) 12 (14.1)
Hypertension n (%) 74 (89.2)
Dyslipidemia n (%) 72 (86.7)
Hyperuricemia n (%) 19 (22.9)
Previous cardiovascular disease n (%) 21 (24.7)
Office blood pressure
 SBP (mmHg) 142.2 ± 18.9
 DBP (mmHg) 79.0 ± 12.0
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 156.9 ± 38.4
 HbA1c (%) 7.8 ± 0.7
Renal function
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 0.2
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 67.3 ± 17.6
 Median UACR (mg/gCr) (interquartile range) 181.5 (47.9, 638.0)
Lipid metabolism
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 184.4 ± 37.5
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 102.0 ± 29.0
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.7 ± 15.4
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 173.8 ± 115.1
Antidiabetic agents
 Insulin n (%) 28 (37.8)
 Biguanides n (%) 49 (66.2)
 DPP-4 inhibitors n (%) 47 (63.5)
 Sulfonylureas n (%) 23 (31.1)
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors n (%) 17 (23.0)
 Thiazolidinediones n (%) 12 (16.2)
 Glinides n (%) 7 (9.5)
 GLP1 agonists n (%) 8 (10.8)
Antihypertensive agents
 RAS inhibitors
  Angiotensin II receptor blockers n (%) 58 (68.2)
  Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors n (%) 4 (4.7)
 Calcium-channel blockers n (%) 52 (61.2)
 Diuretics n (%) 10 (11.8)
 α1-Blockers n (%) 2 (2.4)
 β-Blockers n (%) 7 (8.2)
 Spironolactone n (%) 3 (3.5)
 α2-Agonists n (%) 2 (2.4)
Antihyperlipidemic agents
 Statins n (%) 55 (64.7)
 Fibrates n (%) 4 (4.7)
 Antihyperuricemic agents n (%) 16 (18.8)
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, GLP1 glucagon-like peptide 1, RAS renin-angiotensin system