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Table 2 General characteristics among participants with and without DKD

From: Novel associations between sex hormones and diabetic vascular complications in men and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

  Men Postmenopausal women
Without DKD With DKD Without DKD With DKD
N 1528 592 1705 678
Demographic parameter    
 Age, years 66.75 ± 8.26 69.47 ± 9.34* 66.94 ± 7.23 69.61 ± 8.54*
 Duration of diabetes, years 9.36 ± 7.41 12.35 ± 8.47* 9.51 ± 7.88 11.94 ± 8.37*
 HbA1c, % 7.41 ± 1.27 8.02 ± 1.6* 7.29 ± 1.26 7.71 ± 1.46*
 BMI, kg/m2 24.77 ± 3.24 25.54 ± 3.41* 24.54 ± 3.71 25.75 ± 3.89*
 Smoking, % 34.9 38.7 2.5 2.4
 Hypertension, % 73.7 89.9* 76.1 90.7*
 Dyslipidemia, % 61.5 68.4* 59 64.5*
Sex hormone levels    
 TT, nmol/L 15.13 ± 5.89 13.99 ± 5.89* 0.61 ± 0.55 0.63 ± 0.46
 E2, pmol/L 122.3 (173.9, 243.63) 110.98 (172.65, 242.88) 79.35 (117.7, 163.85) 77.78 (121.6, 171.4)*
 DHEA, pg/mL 190.73 ± 96.65 192.03 ± 109.8 128.5 ± 66.62 131.72 ± 71.56
 FSH, IU/L 11.77 ± 9.33 14.55 ± 13.97* 54.35 ± 22.12 58.39 ± 26.78*
 LH, IU/L 7.87 ± 4.4 10.24 ± 7.6* 25.49 ± 10.63 27.99 ± 14.53*
Renal function index    
 lnACR 2.19 ± 0.63 4.46 ± 1.26* 2.32 ± 0.64 4.27 ± 1.12*
 High ACR, % 0 92.6* 0 91.8*
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 93.51 ± 12.65 81.84 ± 23.75* 94.71 ± 12.15 84.98 ± 22.72*
  1. Normally distributed variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, non-normal variables are expressed as median (P25, P75) and categorical variables are expressed as percentage (%). The Student’s t test was used to compare the continuous variables of the normal distribution, the Mann–Whitney U test was used for the comparison of the non-normal distribution continuous variables, and the Pearson χ2 test was used for the comparison between the categorical variables
  2. * P < 0.05, compared with those without DKD