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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and matched controls

From: Effect of pioglitazone in acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus: a nested case–control study

Variables Cases (N = 1150) Controls (N = 3450) Crude OR [95% CI] p
Sex, male 578 (50.3) 1734 (50.3)  
Age 70–74 [65–69; 75–79] 70–74 [65–69; 75–79]  
Hypertension 1039 (90.3) 3005 (87.1) 1.40 [1.12–1.75] 0.003
Atrial fibrillation 184 (16.0) 398 (11.5) 1.49 [1.22–1.80] < 0.001
Prior myocardial infarction 140 (12.2) 358 (10.4) 1.20 [0.97–1.48] 0.088
Use of medications
 Antithromboticsa 713 (62.0) 2391 (69.3) 0.68 [0.58–0.79] < 0.001
 Statins 276 (24.0) 1156 (33.5) 0.61 [0.52–0.71] < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea 411 (35.7) 1233 (35.7)  
 Biguanide 379 (33.0) 1137 (33.0)  
 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor 34 (3.0) 102 (3.0)  
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 86 (7.5) 258 (7.5)   
 Pioglitazone 11 (1.0) 74 (2.1) 0.44 [0.23–0.83] 0.012
 Insulin 347 (30.2) 1041 (30.2)  
  1. Cases and controls (1:3) are matched for same sex, age, and treatment with sulfonylurea, biguanide, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and insulin
  2. Crude OR (odds ratio), 95% CI (confidence interval) and p values are derived from conditional logistic regression analyses
  3. aAntithrombotics include aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, triflusal, cilostazol, warfarin, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran