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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristic by Hp phenotypes

From: Association of haptoglobin phenotype with incident acute myocardial infarction in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes

Variable SMART2D DN
Hp 1-1 (N = 110) Hp 2-1 (N = 449) Hp 2-2 (N = 475) P value Hp 1-1 (N = 133) Hp 2-1 (N = 561) Hp 2-2 (N = 596) P value
Age (years) 58.13 ± 10.16 59.05 ± 11.64 58.73 ± 11.51 0.737 58.54 ± 12.94 57.70 ± 12.64 59.10 ± 12.22 0.163
Female (%) 40.9 47.2 45.5 0.486 41.4 34.8 39.6 0.154
Smoking history (%) 0.788 0.932
Current 8.2 7.8 9.1 14.0 13.8 11.5
Ex 9.1 7.6 7.8 15.5 16.4 15.8
Never 82.7 84.6 83.1 70.5 69.9 72.7
BMI (kg/m2) 26.15 ± 4.12 26.75 ± 5.00 26.27 ± 4.47 0.231 26.18 ± 4.68 26.07 ± 5.26 26.21 ± 4.41 0.895
HbA1c (%) 8.14 ± 1.69 7.61 ± 1.43 7.81 ± 1.60 0.018 8.06 ± 1.82 8.31 ± 1.96 8.13 ± 1.81 0.178
Diabetes duration (years) 11.12 ± 7.63 12.15 ± 9.88 12.60 ± 10.06 0.346 12.24 ± 10.00 11.83 ± 8.90 11.92 ± 9.05 0.894
SBP (mm Hg) 140.35 ± 17.40 143.05 ± 18.61 141.62 ± 20.47 0.323 135.81 ± 19.60 134.46 ± 18.78 137.16 ± 20.20 0.067
DBP (mm Hg) 77.64 ± 8.35 78.99 ± 9.45 78.53 ± 9.67 0.383 77.53 ± 11.51 76.53 ± 10.29 76.76 ± 10.98 0.634
TC (mmol/L) 4.42 ± 1.05 4.40 ± 0.89 4.41 ± 0.95 0.954 4.60 ± 0.96 4.63 ± 1.16 4.63 ± 1.11 0.947
HDL (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.36 1.32 ± 0.36 1.34 ± 0.36 0.419 1.33 ± 0.40 1.28 ± 0.36 1.29 ± 0.38 0.375
LDL (mmol/L) 2.73 ± 0.89 2.70 ± 0.79 2.72 ± 0.81 0.942 2.78 ± 0.84 2.73 ± 0.86 2.74 ± 0.79 0.775
TG (mmol/L) 1.65 ± 0.98 1.73 ± 1.32 1.68 ± 1.75 0.829 1.70 ± 1.05 1.93 ± 1.44 1.80 ± 1.21 0.116
uACR (mg/g) 24.0 (7.0–103.0) 21.0 (5.8–132.3) 25.0 (7.0–116.5) 0.847 39.4 (12.0–109.5) 44.0 (11.0–239.0) 37.0 (10.0–228) 0.322
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 84.59 ± 28.07 83.16 ± 28.61 84.82 ± 26.92 0.649 75.52 ± 27.86 78.69 ± 29.90 77.30 ± 29.01 0.467
Medication (%)         
Insulin 22.7 27.4 24.8 0.505 26.3 34.8 30.4 0.097
RAS antagonist 55.5 62.1 58.9 0.364 60.2 64.5 46.6 0.589
Lipid lowering 80.0 82.0 83.8 0.573 71.8 73.7 74.9 0.731
  1. Statistically significant are in italics (P values < 0.05)
  2. Data are presented as frequencies (%) for categorical variables and as the mean ± SD for continuous, normally distributed variables
  3. BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RAS renin–angiotensin system, SBP systolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, uACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  4. P-values are for the difference among the Hp phenotype within the study cohorts